The Maritime History of the Great Lakes
Reindeer (Bark), C33063, 30 Jul 1855

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      The subscribers are disirous of engaging a competent
      person to take charge of a Barque of 400 tons from
      Matchedash Bay, on Lake Huron, to Toronto.
      Applicants must combine a partial knowledge of the
      navigation of lake Huron, Erie and Ontario, and the
      management of a large vessel in the Canal, with
      experience in the handling of a square rigged vessel.
      Hayes Bros. & Co.
      Toronto Globe
      March 17, 1855
      . . . . .
A fine new Barque for ocean navigation, the REINDEER has arrived at Toronto. She was built by Messrs. Hayes at Coldwater, a few miles from Georgian Bay and came down the lake via. the Welland Canal
She measures 474 tons and will class A I at Lloyd's for 7 years. The following are her dimensions
      Length on deck - 138 feet
      Length of keel - I33 feet
      Breadth extreme - 26 feet 3 inches
      Depth of hold amidships - I2 feet 10 inches
      Depth of hold forward - 13 feet 9 inches
      Depth of hold aft - 13 feet 2 inches

The REINDEER is on her way to London, England, where she will be offered for sale, she has on board two thirds of her cargo, which consists of a lot of walnut logs and staves, shipped by Mr. Pierson, of Chatham, which are intended for the English market. - - - (Buffalo Democrocy, undated)
      Detroit Daily News
      Tuesday, July 30, 1855

      . . . . .

      PORT OF QUEBEC -- Port No. 58 of 1855
BUILT -- TORONTO, November 10th. 1854 Registered September 1, 1855
      LENGTH - 132.1 feet
      BREADTH - 25.5 feet
      DEPTH - 13 feet
Original Owner -James, & John Hayes, of Toronto , sold all 64 shares to William Smith of Poplar, County of Middlesex [London] dated March 21, 1856
      from Register of Port of Quebec
      Public Archives, Canada
      R.G. 42 Vol. 202 p.48
      Microfilm Reel, No. C2064

      . . . . .

      The Barque REINDEER
      The Barque REINDEER, which made a seaport of the little inland Ontario village of Goldwater ninety-three years ago was a Toronto venture, by Messrs. Hayes Bros. & Co., who are not to be confused with the furniture firm of different name (Jacques & Hay) whose factory was on the Toronto waterfront near Front St. and York and whose sterling products are now sought as antiques. M.P. Hayes was one of
the brothers Dr. James John Hayes was another. His name is spelt in the same way as was the furniture firm's partner in the Reindeer's original document. She was intended for sale on the Liverpool market, which was then absorbing Canadian built shipping.
The Reindeer was built at Coldwater, a hundred miles from Toronto ny land and six hundred by water. She was partially loaded with timber there and in the following spring, finished loading with walnut in the Chatham area, and reached Toronto in August, I855. Capt. Lundy living on Church Street up to the beginning of this century, was her master. She got aground on our western sandbar while waiting for a consort, but was released by tugs and got off for the old-country before the autumn gales set in.
Her consort was another Hayes Bros. & Co. venture, the sailing ship CITY OF TORONTO, launched at the foot of Lorne St., on the Union Station site April 30, I855, eleven months after her keel was laid. The two ships, the REINDEER and the CITY OF TORONTO must have been begun about the same time. The CITY OF TORONTO was built of oak and pine cut at Newmarket and hauled to the new Northern Railway line in the winter of I853. She, like the REINDEER was intended for export. She was a deeper vessel and was built to class A I at Lloyds for ten years. She was much the larger vessel 168 feet long and a thousand tons burthen, and she was ship-rigged, that is with square sails and yards crossing all three masts.
      The REINDEER was possibly rigged at Coldwater where she was launched in November I854. The CITY OF TORONTO was masted here and completely rigged at Quebec, where also she took in the last of her ocean going cargo. She was too deep to carry a full load down the St. Lawrence canals. The two ships (for full-rigged barques like full-rigged brigs were classed correctly as "ships" in the old category, which refused to include four-and-after's) went down Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence.
      As they were loaded or partly loaded they probably used the canals for the descent, although the bark CATARAQUE ran the Galop Rapids in tow of a tug in I854, She was another freshwater export to England, and was built in Kingston.
The CITY OF TORONTO is said to have made a two weeks passage from Quebec to Liverpool, a record, under Capt. Clarke, a salt water man, but was wrecked on the coast of Nova Scotia in the fall of I856, when she was returning to Quebec on a second voyage in the timber trade. She had been sold in Liverpool almost as soon as she got there.
The New Brunswick born Marco Polo, fastest ship in the world, sail or steam, in 1855 was just a timber drogher, intended for sale in England along with her first cargo. Her builder built better than they knew- or a fortunate accident at her launching gave her the unsuspected turn of speed.
A Barque is a deep sea rig, differing from a schooner in having two square-rigged masts and one, the mizzen, fore-an-aft rigged. A Barquentine has only the fore-mast square rigged and other mast, fore-an-aft, on the lakes we had a hundred barquentines and three-masted schooners with square top-sails, and most of these were called , wrongly, "Barques"
      True Barques on fresh water have been few, being ill-adapted to bending about in small compass. One was built at Garden 1sland, in Lake Ontario in 1877, went to sea and had a successful career. She was named after her birth-place. She was a true barque, for through the courtesy of Mr. D.D. Calvin, grandson of her builder, we have seen her sail-plan, another the CATARAQUI mentioned was built nearby at Kingston, in 1854. The same year as the REINDEER, and was towed down the St. Lawrence to sea. A contemporary print in an English magazine of the CATARAQUI in the Galop Rapids, depicts her as a true barque, with four square yards on each of two masts.
      With so many pseudo-barques listed in lake registers we might be suspicious of the barque REINDEER, built at Coldwater. But the British General Register, which should know the difference between barques, barquentines, and top-sail schooners, says definately, "rig, barque". So although the register was not correct about the building place of the Reindeer, saying she was built at "Toronto", it is probable that she too, had a true barque rig, for she was intended for salt water from the beginning.
We have something more to say of her next week.
      "Schooner Days"
      Toronto Evening Telegram
      Saturday June 28, 1947
      by C.H.J. Snider

      . . . . .


      The Barque REINDEER, built at Coldwater, Ontario, in I854 , left Toronto in August I855, and crossed the ocean under her own sails, possibly to London, for it was there she was sold. The official
record gives Toronto as her building place, which is about a hundred miles out. There was a Reindeer built at Toronto in I8I4, a little schooner of less than 50 tons. But the Hayes, Barque REINDEER was built at Coldwater.
The record from the General Register and Records Office of Shipping and Seamen in London is of interest, for it shows among other things that the REINDEER did find a purchaser in England and was re-register ed in London September 3rd. I856, which may have been the date of the sale., The details are;
"Official number- 33063
"Name of Ship - REINDEER.
.'Port and number -Quebec, 58. , I855
"British built, Sailing
"Built at Toronto, IOth. November I854 (probably date of her launch at Goldwater)
"Decks, one .. Masts, three .. Rig, barque .. Build, carvel.
Galleries, none.. Head, none.. Framework, wood.
Length - 132.1 feet
Breadth - 25.6 feet Gross tonnage - 348.5I -- Register tonnage - 348.51
Depth - I3 feet
      Original Owner - James, John Hayes of Toronto, Doctor of Medicine. 64 shares (that is, all shares)
Original registry (probably no. 58 at Quebec, cancelled.
      Registered DeNovo at London 3/9/56 No.58
This record is replete with useless information. That is typical of Governmental inquisition. In Toronto at the present time some hard-working official,is on the orders of higher up dumbunnies, threatening owners of 12 foot dinghies with the terrors of the Mounted Police if they do not have their gallant craft "registered" with the Dominion authorities as well as with the local Harbor Commission, and this registration involves producing a builders certificate and bill of sale and painting the minnow leviathan's name, Port of hail, and registered number, on both bows and the stern, in letters three inches high, in some light color against a darker background. Apparently the Mounted Police see best at night.
Registry numbers were in six figure! when we took out our last, five years ago, so a six letter name with Toronto. and the registration number, all repeated three times in letter 3 inches high, on a darker background, will form a line at least I5 feet long. How to drape this on a I2 foot dinghy presents a problem, but those clever bureaucrats have been told that there are two sides to every ship, port and starboard. If they could only remember which was which they would have the problem solved. Except that I9 three inch letters and figures, requiring at least five feet in space, have to go on the sterns of dinghies, which are not five feet wide, and the sterns of tumlarens which are twice as long as dinghies, are not five inches wide. So presumably, they will have to be broadened by another order-in-council.
      Getting back to the record of the REINDEER, it could have been taken for granted that if she was a wood ship her frame was of wood.
      There might be much point in specifying what kind of wood -- white oak, as it was, or tamarac, elm, pine or cedar, as a matter of fact she was built of good Ontario white oak, elm and pine. But no, Red tape cared for none of these things. As for dimensions, then as now, it wanted , the "length" only between the stem and sternpost, although the vessel is always several feet longer than this. No one ever knows from the register, how long any ship is, actually.
Commercial vessels had not had galleries for two centuries before the REINDEER was launched and figureheads were only worth noting when there were any, yet officialdom solemnly demanded information of value when the Pett ?? were spending King Charles's shipmoney, but in this instance entirely negative. Had the shape of the bow of the REINDEER and stern profile been given it would be of indentification value then, and of interest now. Possibly the stern was straight and verticle, an innovation the Muir Bros. adopted in the AYR in 1855.
      "Quebec" was only a port of call for the REINDEER, not where she was built, which was mistakingly given as Toronto, but where she was registered. A much more illuminating description was given by the Chicago Democrat, which included the depth of hold at three different points. This showed that the deck of the REINDEER had a good curve or "sheer," and that she was deeper bodied than the Welland Canal vessels then being built to similar dimensions of length and beam.
The dimensions given by the 'Democrat' were:-
Length on deck- 138 feet.
Length of the keel -133 feet.
Beam -25 feet 5 inches
Depth of hold -12 foot 10 inches amidships
Depth of hold -13 foot 9 inches forward
Depth of hold - 13 foot 2 inches aft
" She had on board two thirds of her cargo, consisting of a lot of walnut logs and staves shipped by Mr. Pierson, of Chatham, and intended for the English market."
If the actual length of the keel and length on deck are given correctly, it confirms the suggestion that the REINDEER was practically straight stemmed. The five foot difference could be taken up by the short after-overhang. She may have had a short curved knee at the stern head to help her find favor in the English markets A Collingwood paper at the time gave her length as 142 feet, which would still be only 9 feet longer than her 133 foot keel.
      "Schooner Days" by C.H.J. Snider
      Toronto Evening Telegram
      Saturday July 5, 1947

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new vessel
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William R. McNeil
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Reindeer (Bark), C33063, 30 Jul 1855