The two mamoth steamers building in this city for the Detroit route, in connection with the Michigan Central R. R., are to be called the PLYMOUTH ROCK and WESTERN WORLD. They will be the largest steamers afloat on any inland water, and in every respect superior to anything ever built. They are estimated to cost $500,000 each We learn that they are to be commanded by Capt. George E. Willoughby and Capt. C.C. Stannard, both long connected with the route, and faithful and competent sailors. The boats are built under the supervision of Isaac Newton, Esq., of new York. We shall have more to say of them in a few days.
Buffalo Daily Courier
January 7, 1854
THE NEW STEAMERS PLYMOUTH ROCK AND WESTERN WORLD.
Our citizens have, no doubt, been aware for some time, that two immense steamers were building at this port, destined to run in connection with the New York Central and Michigan Central Railroads. They are named respectively as above, and as they are now nearly ready for active service, we took occasion on Saturday afternoon to pay them a visit for the purpose of inspecting their appointments. We were not aware that so great a treat was in store for us, and considerably distrust our abilities to do them justice; nevertheless, having by the kindness of Wm. M. Dorr, been furnished with every facility for "taking notes," we herewith present to all those interested in our lake marine, "and to the public generally," the result of our observations. As the two were constructed after the same model -- are of the same length, breadth, capacity and power, and as their internal and external arrangements are precisely similar, a description of one will suffice for both.
The PLYMOUTH ROCK and WESTERN WORLD were designed and built by Mr. John English, under the supervision of Isaac Newton, and for beauty of model, safety and strength are far superior to anything ever before seen upon the inland waters of the globe. Nothing has been neglected which could add in the slightest degree to their safety. The timbers of the hull are crossed and re-crossed, bolted and re-bolted until they present a solid mass of wood and iron. The hold is divided into four compartments by water-tight bulkheads to prevent the possibility of sinking. Wherever afloat these splendid monuments of his industry and skill, the name of Mr. English will be as familiar as a "household word." Length 345 feet ; breadth of beam 45 feet; overall 72 feet ; depth of hold 15 feet ; tonnage - builder's measurement - 2200 tons. The engines are from the celebrated "Allaire Works," New York, and are unusually magnificent in style and elaborate in finish.
Diameter of cylinders . . . . . . . . . 81 inches
Length of stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 feet
Diameter of wheels . . . . . . . . . . 38 feet
Length of buckets . . . . . . . . . . . 11 feet
Breadth of buckets . . . . . . . . . . 22 inches
Horse power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,500
The joiner work is from the hands of Messrs. C.C. Crampton & Brothers, of New York, and is most splendidly executed. It is impossible for us to give a detailed description of their undertaking. Suffice it that the designs are at once more elegant, chaste, and elaborate than any heretofore seen on the lakes, which is saying a great deal, but as all will allow, we think not too much. The cabin accommodations are for 800 passengers, while as many more can find room in the steerage. In describing the internal arrangements, as a matter of convenience, as well as taste, we shall commence with
The Kitchen -- This is situated on the main deck, larboard side, forward of the wheel by the middle gangway. Adjoining is a large ice-house and refrigerators for the purpose of keeping meats, vegetables, &c., perfectly fresh. The kitchen proper is divided into two departments, one of which is exclusively the pastry department. The whole is airy, neat and convenient -- furnished with water by pipes leading from a reservoir on the upper deck, so that with the assistance of a small hose all the boilers in the furnace can be filled in a few moments.
Alongside of the cooking stove or furnace is an oven of huge dimensions and novel structure, the invention of Mr. Doty. It is calculated for boiling meats and baking pastry, for both of which purposes it will suit admirably. A batch of nearly 100 pies can be baked with ease in it at once. A private passage leads from the kitchen, which, after descending a flight of winding stairs, opens into the pantry. Here every convenience is to be found that ingenuity could suggest. Pipes from the kitchen afford abundance of water at temperatures varying from icy coldness to boiling hot. The dishes are all of the most costly material and elegant design, manufactured in Europe expressly for these boats; and the different arrangements, so as to -? ? --damaged type, bad line-- ? ? - tact and experience. From the pantry a trap-door opens into a cellar, (a cellar in a steamboat - think of that !) where butter, &c., are kept for the table. Another door opens out of the pantry into.
THE DINING SALOON, which is on the lower deck aft, and is 108 feet in length. Here are tale accommodations for 200 guests, with every luxury surrounding which imagination can desire. On the starboard side forward is a door opening out of the saloon into the gentlemen's wash-room, which is conveniently and elegantly fitted up with marble basins, stands, &c., supplied with water by pipes from the upper deck the same as the kitchen. Between the wash-room and the pantry is the
SILVER ROOM, or the place where the plate belonging to the boat is kept. This plate was manufactured in England expressly for these boats, and is the most extensive and beautiful we ever beheld. The whole service is of solid silver, and cost within a trifle of fifty thousand dollars for each set. Included in each service are twenty-four massive candelabra. The epun or fruit stand is a most magnificent article of workmanship, and is well worthy a visit. It represents a tree with spreading branches, around which grape vines are twining. In the branches sits a squirrel quietly munching some rare forest dainty, while at the base, a shepherd boy, and his dog are watching him at his noonday meal, and anxiously contriving how to effect his capture.
About midway on the starboard side of the dining saloon, a flight of stairs leads to the main deck, and quite aft another flight leads up into
THE LADIES' SALOON, situated on the main deck and directly over the dining saloon. On each side of this saloon are eight state rooms, sixteen in all, with one double and two single beds in each, and surrounded by drapery of the most beautiful description. The floors are carpeted with velvet tapestry, the furniture is of rosewood, elaborately carved and finished. Six large lounges with numerous chairs of the same material, upholstered with the finest satin; mirrors in which unrivalled beauty may behold her charms, fringed curtains of strange device and elegant design, and burnished chandeliers give to this apartment a dreamy luxuriousness from which one has no very particular desire to emerge.
THE AFTER SALOON, on the second deck, is one hundred and twenty feet in length and eighteen feet in width, and together with the FORWARD SALOON extends the whole length of the boat. This latter saloon is, in length, one hundred and forty feet. Both are very high, spacious and airy -- arched overhead, and beautifully carved and finished with designs in relief. State rooms extend the whole length on each side, furnished in the most costly manner. Through a huge pane of glass in the after part of this saloon, a view of the workings of the monster engine is obtained. The sofas, lounges, tete-a-tetes, chairs, &c., are of rosewood, upholstered with satin. Each boat has two superb chairs of the style used on board the MAYFLOWER by our Pilgrim fathers.
The BRIDAL ROOM of which there are two on each boat, are furnished with patent spring mattresses 5 by 7 feet. These rooms are curtained and draperies in the most magnificent style, and surrounded with mirrors. Adjoining these are single state rooms with double beds furnished in keeping with the rest of the appointments. Each state room is furnished with a marble wash bowl, and supplied with water by merely touching a spring connected with it. The whole of these arrangements for introducing into the various parts of the boat are the result of the ingenuity of Mr. G. S. Wormer, Steward of the WESTERN WORLD. The Captain's state room is forward of the upper saloon directly under the wheel house and is fitted up in excellent taste. The wheels-mens are provided with rooms on the upper deck adjoining the wheel house. On the larboard side forward of the wheel and directly over the kitchen is the officer's mess room. Beside this there are separate mess rooms for the servants and for the firemen and deck hands, so that none save the passengers are admitted to the tables in the dining saloon.
On the starboard side of the main deck forward of the engine, are separate rooms for the 1st, 2d and 3d engineers. On the opposite side are rooms for clerks, stewards, &c. The Porter's room is on the same side forward. Bell wires leading from the wheel house and the Captain's office to this room enables the porter to be summoned at any moment. The Captain's office is abaft the engine on the main deck, immediately in front of the ladies' saloon, a very convenient and pleasant location. The engine room is fitted up with great taste, and is furnished with clocks, regulators, and all the modern improvements for regulating the machinery. Above and in front of the engine is a crank indicator, the invention of Mr. G.S, Wormer, by which the engineer may know at a glance the condition of the crank. The boilers are three in number, provided with all the necessary improvements to secure safety, and are quite of sufficient capacity to furnish any quantity of steam for the working of the engine. Each boat is supplied with 1,500 of Ray & Polletts patent Life Preservers.
For simplicity and completeness of arrangement, and admirableness of adaptation of everything for its appropriate purpose, -- for richness and ingenuity of furnishing, and for beauty of finish, we can truly say that we never beheld anything at all approachable, and think it will be a long time indeed before any attempt is made to equal them on these waters. The furniture is from the extensive establishment of Messrs. Hersee & Timmerman of this city, and John White, of Gold street, New York. The painting and decorating is by Mr. James Smith, a well known Buffalo artist. The upholstery by Messrs. Cameron & McKay. The carpets were furnished by Mr. John Van Gaasbach, of Albany.
We give the names of the officers as follows:
PLYMOUTH ROCK -- Capt. Geo. E. Willoughby; Chief Mate, Mr. Shook; 2d. Mr. Black; Chief Engineer, Mr. Hoover; 2d engineer, Mr. Sturges; Steward, Mr. Wm. N. Doty, late of the steamer TROY , on the North River and steamship FRANKLIN, of the New York & Harve Line. Mr. Barker is to have charge of the papers, and will be happy to settle with all who choose to call at the Captain's office.
WESTERN WORLD -- Capt. C.C. Stannard; Chief Mate, Wm. McKay; 2d Mate, Mr. Power; Chief Engineer, Mr. Laurence; 2d engineer, Mr. Rockafellow; Steward, G.S. Wormer; Clerk, Mr. Noble. All, or nearly all of these gentlemen are too well known on the lakes to need commendation. We venture to predict that any one making a trip with them will be glad of the opportunity of doing so again; and that the PLYMOUTH ROCK and WESTERN WORLD, under their management, will acquire and maintain a reputation for speed, comfort and safety equalled only by their unparalleled magnificence.
Buffalo Daily Republic
Monday, July 3, 1854
. . . . .
Steamer WESTERN WORLD
Friday, July 7, 1854.
When the gang-plank was drawn in, last evening, at 9 o'clock, and the last clamors of the fretful bell had ceased, we, who through the courtesy of the officers, had been early provided with state rooms, had leisure to look about us and form our impression of the vessel, her motive power, her official staff, and her general appearance. As you have not yet given the dimensions and capacity of this mammoth of the Western waters, permit me here to describe, as well as my pen, unlearned in nautical matters may do, the craft on board of which we are so comfortably domiciliated.
She was built, as you know, to run between Buffalo and Detroit, in connection with the Michigan Central Railroad, and with her sister craft, the "PLYMOUTH ROCK," will form a daily evening line, from each place. She was built in Buffalo, by a renowned ship wright, Mr. John English, of N. Y., and is said to be fine specimen of nautical architecture, as regards strength, fitness, buoyancy, &c. Her speed, owing to peculiar circumstances, we have hardly been able to determine, though we have been running most of the time, since leaving port,
with a pressure of less than ten pounds of steam, yet we have thus far made within a very little of the ordinary time of the "OCEAN," and other Detroit boats. The heat of the weather is so intense, that the men in the fire-room cannot work to advantage, and we are therefore forced to keep the steam very low. There is no doubt that, under favorable circumstances, the new boat will equal, if she do not surpass her rivals in point of speed.
The "WESTERN WORLD" is 346 feet in length, on deck, with 42 and a half feet (? depth of hold, and has a capacity in carpenters' measurement, of 2500 tons. Her engine is a beautiful machine, from the Allaire works, New York, and is of 1500 horse-power; the cylinder has a diameter of 81 inches, and the piston a 12 foot stroke; the diameter of the wheel is 30 feet 6 inches, the buckets 11 feet in length and 30 inches in depth. These dimensions will give you an idea of the tremendous power of this grand steamer. Her carrying capacity is equally surprising, for there are berths for 625 passengers, and 100 extra mattresses, for unusual occasions. The upper saloon, or state room hall, is 302 feet in
length by 18 in width, and along the two sides are ranged the splendid sleeping apartments, numbering 118 in all, each furnished with a rose wood bedstead, a marble top wash stand, with water and water pipes, also a mirror, a patent candlestick, and a costly life preserver for each passenger. The bridal state room is most gorgeous in its fittings and furnitures, forming a perfect fairy palace, but a slight idea of which can be conveyed in a description. The furniture, sofas, chairs, &c., are covered with rich brocatelle and satin, costing $15.50 a yard; the satin curtains in the ladies cabin cost $9 a yard. The state rooms are furnished with curtains and draperies of the richest material, and the windows throughout the boat are draped with French "lasting," a most elegant and durable worsted goods. The main saloon is certainly the finest apartment of the kind we have ever noticed. It is finished in white, wit
Gothic arches and tracery, and a dome, rising from the center, of stained glass lights the salon, while it greatly conduces to the general effect. The chandeliers are seven in number, very large and costly; one, suspended from the center of the dome, is of ormolu, fifteen feet in height, with eight ground glass, of what is called the "Crystal Palace" pattern. Dividing the two saloons is a cut-off, enclosing the engine, which is visible through a large plate of
crystal, gilt base and marble slabs decorate these gorgeous saloons, and by their reflections, reduplicate the interiors almost to infinity. The carpet of velvet, said to be the finest ever put down upon a steamboat. It was furnished by Van Gaasbeck, of Albany. The mirrors are from the establishment of Waldron & Rumsey, of Buffalo, the mattresses from Cameron & McKay, the water fittings by Thompson & McFarlane, and the furniture by Hersee & Timmerman.
On the upper deck, forward of the wheel on the starboard side, is the Barber shop, Wash Rooms, etc., and on the port side is the Officers Mess Rooms, an entirely new feature with our boats. Here the officers of the boat mess together, separate from the passengers, and a right snug, comfortable place it is, furnished with all the appliances of the most elaborate private dining rooms. In the extreme forward part of the upper saloon is the Captain's room,
arranged as it should, with special reference to his comfort and convenience.
The Dining Hall is below decks, running the entire extent of the after part of the boat, and fitted with berths on both sides, like the boats on the Sound and Hudson. From the Ladies Saloon, aft, is a broad stairway leading down to the dining hall, thus furnishing a private avenue for the fair portion of the passengers, with an improvement on the usual plan. The dining cabin is ventilated by 16 patent dead-lights on either side, beside six large stern
lights. Three tables can be spread here, with abundant room. Forward of this, on the starboard side, is a plate-washing room, furnished with hot and cold water, silver and glass rooms, a pantry, with a cellar, containing ice, and use for the purpose of preserving butter, fruit, &c., and a steam table, for carving an improvement never before introduced in steamboat architecture. Convenience and compactness, with great neatness, reign throughout the victualing department. The pantry and kitchen are immediately connected, which does away with the necessity of transporting the meats, &across the open deck, as
heretofore has been usual. On the port side, forward of the wheel, is the kitchen, which is fitted up with all possible conveniences and every late improvement. The pantry room, is furnished with marble slabs, a large refrigerator, for freezing creams, ices, etc., and lockers for preserving materials. The great ice-closet is a curiosity in its way. It occupies the
whole space between decks, and contains room for suspending all the meats, poultry, fish, &c., which is vastly better than throwing these al together, in a chaotic heap, upon the ice. The kitchens are neat, well ventilated and most convenient, conveying the idea that the comfort of the passenger in respect to his food, is to be looked after much more than heretofore.
The steerage is larger than on any other boat upon the lakes; it contains berths for 125 passengers, and is arranged with scrupulous regard for the comfort of second class travellers.
I have omitted to state that the silver, china and glass, were all manufactured expressly for this line, every article being marked with the name of the boat.
Each waiter is furnished with a silver salver, the salt-cellars are silver and glass, and very beautiful. The waiters are all in uniform, wearing linen coats white cravats, gloves, &c. The officers of the boat also wear the button of the M. C. R. R. Company, which is an admirable arrangement for distinguishing them.
It is but just to say that the whole care of the arrangement and fitting up of these boats has devolved upon the Steward, Mr. G.S. Wormer, who is charged with the general superintendence of this part of the undertaking. he has performed, alone, the duty of upholsterer, and during much of the past winter has kept fifty or sixty young women at work upon the curtains, drapery, &c. To his taste and experience is due the credit of the really splendid results that are before us, in the particulars of fitting, decoration and furniture. Mr. Wormer has been long upon the lakes, and much of the time, has been the right hand man of
Captain George Willoughby, but he is now transferred to the WESTERN WORLD, a new
person being appointed to the other boat. The officers of the WESTERN WORLD are, Commander, Chas. C.. Stanard; First Officer, Wm. McKay; Second Officer, ----Power; Steward, G.S. Wormer; Clerk, Jno. Gilbert; Chief Engineer, Henry Lawrence; Second Engineer, --- Rockfellow.
Thus far we have been most agreeably and comfortably provided for, nothing that could contribute to the gratification of the guests having been neglected or overlooked. The disappointment, however, is very great, that there are not more editorial representatives on board. Beyond a quartet from the Buffalo press, one delegate from Syracuse and one from New York, there are no gentlemen of the profession present. We can only say that those who are absent have greatly erred in foregoing so desirable an opportunity for witnessing the triumphs of steam navigation upon our Mediterranean waters, and of experiencing the thoroughly hospitable and generous treatment of our excellent hosts.
The hat is excessive, even on board, where the motion of the boat creates a constant draught, and ashore it must be intolerable. The lake is as calm and beautiful as a sea of lapis lazuli, broken only by the passage of our sharp prow, which cleaves the liquid with little disturbance and pushes it gently aside, as if with a calm consciousness of superiority. She is certainly a model craft and will be an honor to the line that has lavished so much expense
in the endeavor to make her what she should be.
We are skirting the green shores of Canada, where the bright foliage, the occasional farm house and out buildings and the grazing cattle, lessened to mere Lilliputian beeves and kine, make together a pleasing, pastoral landscape. But Canada presents too great a contrast to the shores opposite, for any American to desire an exchange to her condition. Had hers been Yankee soil, these vast expanses of wilderness would have teemed with life and laughed with plenty, but it will be many a year before she can present anything like the evidence of thrift and happiness that the surface of Ohio and Michigan offer to the observer. And yet, Canada was settled long before either of those States had been tenanted by a white inhabitant. But I an exceeding proper limits, so, au revoir.
The Democracy, Buffalo
Monday, July 10, 1854
THE NEW STEAMERS PLYMOUTH ROCK and WESTERN WORLD. -- We have before given our readers some idea of these two mammoth steamers, now building in this city, for the 'Michigan Central and New York Central Railroads, to run
between this port and Detroit, and are now prepared to give a more detailed doscription of them.
They are built under the superintendence of Isaac Newton, Esq., of new York, a gentlemnan whose successful experience in steamboating on the Hudson river, peculiarly fits him for the responsible po8ition, and is a guarantee that in every they will surpass any steamers ever brought out, or now afloat.
Both boats are built af!er the same model, and the hulls are put together as strong as wood and iron can make them. It is astonishing to see the amount of iron used in the construction. Bulkheads, forming air tight compartments are made throughout the hulls, making them life preservers in every sense of tbe word. This is a decided improvement, and one that should be adopted in all vessels. Their dimensions are as follows:-
Extreme length on deck, 352 feet; breadth of beam. 42 feet; width over guards, 72-1/2 feet. Engines 81 inch cylinder, 12 feet stroke, 1500 horse power. The engines are built by the Allaire Works, Messrs. Secor & Co., New York, and designed by F. Saunders, Esq. - Low pressure beam engine. Diameter of wheels 39 feet - face of buckets 11 feet.
The main saloons, or after cabins, are 248 feet long, by 18 wide, with two rows of state-rooms extending the entire length, on each side. The outside rooms are arranged with slide doors connection with the inner row of state-rooms so they can be used as family rooms for parties. Halls also lead from the main saloon to the outside guards, where the outer row of state-rooms are entered from doors opening in that direction. The inside flank of rooms are lighted and ventilated from the top in a most admirable manner.
The ladies' saioon on the main deck, situated as on other boats, is 79 feet long and 17 wide, with a row of single berth, tastefully arranged on each side: There are also outside, connected by small halls from this saloon, 8 large family rooms on each side, arranged with all the comfort's of a well regulated hotel - wide, comfortable beds, sofas, &c. The dining hall is below tbe main deck, where there are 120 berths arranged on both sides. There are 127 rooms in all, (on each boat,) 64 of them double, or bed rooms, and ample accommodations for 535 persons in berths and beds - more than any steamer now afloat.
The painting, gilding, and stained glass, is done by the well known, and world renowned artist, Jas. Smith, of this city, wllich is assurance enough that it will be well done. The main saloon on the upper deck will present a most gorgeous appearance. A dome 86 feet long by 18 wide, with gothic dome in the center, 16 feet in diameter, 20
feet from deck, covered with stained glass, cannot fail to give tbis saloon, with its rich covered furniture, massive mirrors and beautiful dccorations, a fairy-like enchantnent.
The furniture is from the old established manufactory of Messrs. Hersee & Timmerman, of tbis city, vho bave turned out within the last few year's articles not surpasaed by any eatablishment in the Union. The sofas, chairs, &c., are rose-wood, covered with silk and satin damask, costing in New York from $7.25 to $9.50 per yard. The patterns and designs are original, being got up expressly for these boats.
The copper work of these steamers was all manufactured at the extensive establishment of Messrs. John Otto & Co.
The mattrasses are manufactured by Messrs. Cameron & Mckay, and wilI be the very best that can be made of hair, weighing 25 pounds for the single one, and 37 pounds for the double ones. - The pillows are also made by this house.
One important feature about these floating palaces is the arrangement for water. Each room has a marble slab wash-stand, tbe water supplied from large tanks on the upper deck by Iead pipes, and the waste water carried off in the same way. The plumbing is done by Messrs. Thompson & McFarlane, and the entire work, viI! cost over $14,000.
There are to be two bridal rooms on each boat, whose fitting up will cost each $2,000. We were shown one pair of curtains for these rooms that cost $125.
The mirrors are to be furnished by Messrs. Waldbon & Rumsey, of which there will be four on each boat, costing from $300 to $800.
The Captain's rooom is situated on the forward part of tbe boats directly under the pilot-house, and is of the dimensions of 17 feet by 12. This strikes us as an improvement in location.
The crockery is to be procured in England, where it is made to order from original designs by Mr. G.S. Wormer. The silver ware is also to come from Europe, and will be selected by Capt. Willoughby, now in England, and marked with the name of the boat.
To give our readers some idea of the extent and richness of tbe fitting up of these steamers, we give the following items, which have been furnished us by Mr. WORMER, who made all the purchases in New York, personally. Tbere have been and are to be employed throughout the entire winter, more tban 50 women in making up the linen, curtains, &c. Thse have already used over tbirteen thousand yards of linnen sheeting, two tbousand yards of linen pillow casing, two tbousand four hundred yards of toweling, one thousand eight yards of napkin linen, four thousand eight hundred yards of embroider curtain muslin, and two thousand four hundred yards of dimity.
The boats, when complete, will have cost $250,000 apiece. They will be out about the 1st of June next, probably.
And now, " honor to whom is due" To fit up a boat in such gorgeous style, uniting taste with magnificence and convenience, and utility with both, is no small affair, to be accomplished of a day and vithout experience or thought. We have beell shown some improvements in the arrangement of these boats, which cannot fail to strike others as they did us, as the results of much labor and experiment, and a perception of the defects in present plans, that have escaped an eye less quick, or a mind less intent upon pleasing than have been those of the originator of these plans. Heretofore in conveying the food from the kitchen to the dining saloon, an open space on cleck has oeen traversed, causing the viands, often to be anything but "smoking hot," and palatable when placcd upon the table. Tbis difficulty has been obviated bythe construction of a hall, running from the kitchen under the main deck, to the dinning-ball, wbich is free from all exposure. In each room, also, on the boat, are sinks for washing, similar to tllose used in our homes. The water, however, instead of flowing by means of a facet, is produced by pressure on a valve in Ih top of the the wash-stand, which causes the running to cease as soon as tile finger is removed. This prevents any disagreeable results of carelessness or haste, in neglecting to turn the spigot back again to its proper place. Other improvemcuts, small in themselves, but adding largely to the cnmfort and convience of the thousands that these palaces will carry, might be named had we room; but we must forbear.
For all these inventions, for the exceeding good taste displayed in the purchase of raw material its fitting-up and disposition - in short for its interior arrangements of these boats from stem to stern, the Company is endebted to Mr. G.S. Worner, the popular Steward of the MAY FLOWER. He deserves all the credit that can be bestowed upon him, and will make for himself a monument of good taste, beauty and invention never surpassed or ewualed on a Lake Steamer.
Buffalo Daily Courier
Febuary 1, 1854
Paddle wheel steamer WESTERN WORLD. Of 2,002 tons. Built Buffalo, N.Y., 1854. First home port, Detroit, Mich. -- Disposition, Abandoned 1862
Merchant Steam Vessels of the U. S., 1790 - 1868