The Maritime History of the Great Lakes
Clarence A. Black (Propeller), U127300, 12 Jan 1899

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A picture of the Detroit steamer CLARENCE A. BLACK, regarded as one of the most economical freight carriers in this country is presented herewith. This vessel, built by the Cleveland Ship Building Co. and fitted with the Howden system of hot draft, through arrangement with the Dry Dock Engine Works of Detroit, is credited in two elaborate reports of tests with having shown a fuel consumption of a little less than 1 ½ pounds of coal per indicated horse power per hour. The Black is a vessel of the ordinary coarse-freight type in general use on the great lakes, and is of 6,800 net tons capacity. She is 414 feet over all, 50 feet beam, 28 feet depth. Her load of 6,800 net tons is carried on about 17 feet draught Engines are of triple expansion type, with cylinders of 22, 35 and 58 inches diameter and 40 inches stroke; air pump 32 inches diameter and 14 inches stroke. She has two Scotch boilers of 13 feet 2 inches diameter and 12 feet length over all, allowed 165 pounds working pressure, four furnaces, 48 inches inside diameter with grates of 5 feet 6 inches 88 square feet: total heating surface 4,292 square feet; propeller, sectional, four bladed, 13 feet 6 inches diameter and 14 feet pitch.
Particulars of a trial of this vessel showing a consumption of only 1.46 pounds of coal per I.H.P. per hour are as follows: Steam pressure, 165 pounds, vacuum 22 inches, average revolutions, 87.7; indicated horse power, H. P. cylinder, 482.3, I. P. cylinder, 538.5: L.P. cylinder, 505.8; total average, 1,526.6; ref. M.E.P. to L. P. cylinder. 32.7; ratio of horse power to grate surface 17.3; ratio of heating surface to horse power, 2.8; duration of test, 6 hours 2 minutes; total coal burned 13,440 pounds coal per hour, 2,228 pounds, coal per hour per I.H.P., 1.46 pounds, coal per hour per square foot of grate surface, 25.32; air pressure at fan, 11 1/8 pounds; temperature at hot well, 139 ; temperature of feed water after leaving heater, 175 ; speed of vessel, 12.23 miles; speed of propeller, 13.95 miles; slip of propeller, 23.3 per cent.
      The Marine Review
      January 15, 1899

Steam screw CLARENCE A. BLACK. U. S. No. 127300. Of 4,521 tons gross; 3,274 tons net. Built Lorain, Ohio, 1898. Home port, Duluth, Minn. 413.4 x 50.2 x 24.5 Crew of 23. Steel built. Of 1,200 indicated horsepower.
      Buffalo Evening News
      August 13, 1904

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economy of fuel
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William R. McNeil
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Maritime History of the Great Lakes
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Clarence A. Black (Propeller), U127300, 12 Jan 1899