The Maritime History of the Great Lakes
Scanner, v. 3, n. 1 (October 1970)
Scanner (Toronto, ON), Oct 1970

Bascom, John N., Editor
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Meetings; Milwaukee Clipper; Salty Changes; Delta Queen - A Progress Report; Superferry To Be Lengthened; Veteran Paddlers For Sale; The Loss of the
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Oct 1970
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Friday, October 2nd - Film on the Arctic voyages of MANHATTAN.

Friday, November 6th - Annual Fall Dinner Meeting. Details to be announced.

Milwaukee Clipper

It is with sincere regret that we must announce the retirement of the last of the large Great Lakes passenger liners, the MILWAUKEE CLIPPER of the Wisconsin and Michigan Steamship Company.

This 349-foot steamer was built as Hull 423 of the American Shipbuilding Company at Cleveland in 1905 and entered service under the name JUNIATA as a combination overnight passenger and package freight carrier. She served, in succession, the Anchor Line and the Great Lakes Transit Corporation and during the past few years, was the last operating reminder of these two fleets. Wisconsin & Michigan purchased JUNIATA in October, 1940, and she was taken to Manitowoc for rebuilding. She emerged in 1941 as a modern day boat for the Muskegon to Milwaukee ferry route across Lake Michigan. She still carried a number of cabins for overnight passengers and was capable of carrying a large number of autos. Her quadruple expansion engines served her the entire 65 years.

But now the end has come. Operational and maintenance costs have forced the CLIPPER from her route and she is laid up for sale, at Muskegon. It is unlikely she will sail again. One by one, the grand old ladies of the lakes have come and gone, but it seemed that the CLIPPER would go on forever. Now we must bid a final farewell not only to JUNIATA and MILWAUKEE CLIPPER but to the whole era of the passenger ships that brought so much pleasure to the people of the Great Lakes region.

Marine News

Casualties were unfortunately rather numerous during the summer of this year and perhaps the most serious of the various accidents was the grounding of the E. J. BLOCK in the St. Mary's River late in July. The bulk carrier, a unit of the Inland Steel fleet, struck bottom in the Middle Neebish channel near Sailors' Encampment and damaged thirty-two plates on the starboard side. Repairs were immediately commenced at Fraser Shipyards in Superior and were estimated at a quarter million dollars.

The morning of July 29th brought fog to the Soo area and the U. S. Steel steamer, D. G. KERR, downbound in the St. Mary's River, grounded at Mission Point which is located on the Soo, Michigan, side of the river at the upper end of Little Rapids Cut. The freighter swung in the current until she was facing upriver completely blocking the dock of the Sugar Island Ferry. The ship was moved under her own power after several hours. Fortunately, the ferry SUGAR ISLANDER escaped damage as she was on the other side of the river at the time, but we understand that several prominent residents of the island were a little upset over the interruption of service.

A rather strange accident occurred on July 18th at Superior. The bulk carrier, KINSMAN INDEPENDENT, was docked at the Burlington Northern ore dock for loading when she was struck directly on the stern by her sistership, the U. S. Steel steamer, WILLIAM J. FILBERT. The latter was approaching the dock when a gust of wind reportedly swung her out of control. The Kinsman ship suffered extensive damage and repairs were undertaken by Fraser Shipyards. The FILBERT was undamaged. KINSMAN INDEPENDENT formerly sailed as the FRANCIS E. HOUSE for U. S. Steel. Another strange incident occurred aboard the Detroit River carfloat, ROANOKE, the former CITY OF FLINT 32, which entered service on July 1st, Only in service a week and a half, she was docked at Windsor on July 10th when a string of boxcars broke loose and ran down the yard towards the dock. The engineer of yard engine 6705, which was just pulling 21 cars off the deck of ROANOKE, saw the cars coming and jumped clear just before the collision. The impact reportedly demolished the engine as well as one boxcar and a flatcar. In addition, the whole train was driven backwards on the deck of the ferry and a number of cars were derailed on striking stopblocks. We understand that ROANOKE had to be towed to Nicholson's Dock in Ecorse to have the wreckage lifted off the deck!

The barge WILTRANCO made an unusual departure from her Lake Michigan trade in early August when she made a trip to Silver Bay to load taconite for Cleveland. Towed by the big tug, OLIVE L. MOORE, the barge is now owned by the Escanaba Towing Company, and has been reregistered in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, It is also noted that the numeral 1 has been dropped from her name.

The completion of the new U. S. Steel ship under construction at Lorrain has been delayed by the switch from a large Fairbanks Morse diesel to two smaller Pielstick units. We understand that propulsion problems had been worrying the officials of the steel company for some time.

The Great Lakes area has lost its last lightship. The HURON, which was stationed in Lake Huron above the entrance to the St. Clair River, was removed on August 19th and taken in to Port Huron for ceremonies. On August 24th, she moved under her own power to Detroit where the official decommissioning took place on August 25th. Several groups have announced interest in obtaining the veteran lightship for museum purposes. Not only was HURON the last lightship on the Lakes, but she was the only U.S. lightship ever to be painted with a black hull.

It has been announced that the bulk carriers WILLIAM P. SNYDER JR. and WILLIS B. BOYER have been sold by Pickands Mather & Co., Interlake Steamship Division, to Cleveland-Cliffs Steamship Co. in a move which would appear to prepare Cliffs for the takeover of the contract to haul Republic Steel ore starting in 1972. Both ships were formerly units of the Shenango fleet until their sale to P. M. several years ago. The BOYER, formerly the COL. JAMES M. SCHOONMAKER, has operated under charter to Republic since the sale. The SNYDER will take up her new duties in 1971 while the BOYER will go to Cliffs following the expiry of the present charter to Republic at the beginning of the 1972 season. With all due apologies to the fleets involved, these two handsome vessels have never looked as good in P. M. or Republic colours as they did in Shenango's distinctive livery, and it will be most interesting to see how they look with Cliffs' green on their massive forward cabins.

One of the oldest vessels on the lakes, the self-unloading sandboat, JOSEPH S. SCOBELL, has been sold by the Erie Sand Steamship Co. to Marine Salvage Ltd., Port Colborne, for scrapping at Humberstone. The ship has been inactive at Sandusky since 1968. The SCOBELL was built in 1891 by the Cleveland Shipbuilding Co. and entered service for the Lake Superior Iron Mining Co. as GRIFFIN. She had served in many trades over the years and had been converted to diesel power for her service with Erie Sand.

The McNamara sandsucker, CHARLES R. HUNTLEY, has returned to the lakes after several years on the East Coast and is now operating in the Hamilton area. Her appearance has changed considerably since she is no longer propelled by her steam engines, but rather by two Harbormaster marine outboards. Along the same lines, we understand that the Lake Erie drillboat, NORDRILL, formerly the C.S.L. canaller, SIMCOE, has been fitted with the same type of unit so that she may move about the lake under her own power.

The Halco tanker, CHEMICAL TRANSPORT, made two long trips to Freeport, Texas, earlier this year, to pick up cargoes of caustic soda for delivery in Eastern Canada, This was the first visit of a Hall tanker to the Gulf of Mexico. Another travelling laker is the FORT ST. LOUIS of Canada Steamship Lines Ltd. The package freighter cleared Montreal on August 14th for a forty-five day trip to deliver cargo to government installations in the Arctic, She was fitted with a helicopter to deliver cargo in areas without usable docking facilities.

The Papachristidis bulk carrier, FEUX-FOLLETS, has carried several unusual mixed cargoes of grain and bentonite down the Seaway this year. The bentonite, loaded in Chicago, has been taken to Sept-Iles, Quebec.

The newest unit of the Algoma Central Railway's fleet took the water at Collingwood Shipyards on August 27th. Given the name AGAWA CANYON, in honour of the famous scenic canyon northwest of the Sault to which the railway runs special excursions, the self-unloading bulk carrier is expected to enter service late in the fall. Unfortunately, the ship was the scene of an explosion only the following week. One shipyard worker was killed when "fumes" ignited in the cargo hold.

In our last issue, we reported that the Halco tanker, FUEL TRANSPORT, had fitted out and left the lakes after being sold to Panamanian buyers. It has now come to light that she was sold to the same firm that has taken so many other canallers and that she has been renamed WITFUEL. We are fast running out of available canallers!

The future of another Hall tanker, INLAND TRANSPORT, would seem to be in considerable doubt. She operated this spring, but laid up at Toronto July 16th. On August 3rd, she was towed out by the tug, HERBERT A. and went down Lake Ontario but her destination has not as yet been confirmed.

It is reported that the PARKDALE arrived at Carthagena, Spain, on June 8th where will be scrapped. In our May issue, we stated that PARKDALE and ALEXANDER LESLIE had departed Quebec in tandem tow behind the tug, SALVONIA, on May 12th. In view of the fact that we have no arrival date for LESLIE, we wonder whether she did not go as reported.

Speaking of lakers that have gone overseas for scrapping, many of our members will recall that, shortly after the parade of scrappings started, there were rumours about that several old lakers were operating in the Mediterranean area. Most historians had dismissed this information as there could be no verification. We have now learned that a visitor to Europe has reportedly observed the former laker PIONEER operating in the Adriatic Sea, so it looks as if there is still some digging to be done on the subject. PIONEER passed down the Welland Canal en route overseas on September 19th, 1961.

The steam tug, GRAEME STEWART, has now arrived at the Hamilton yard of United Metals for scrapping. The veteran tug was well known on the lower lakes and was responsible for towing out many of the lakers scrapped over the past decade.

The Hindman canaller, ELIZABETH HINDMAN, was sold this summer to a Thunder Bay firm which resold her to the American firm of Hyman-Michaels for scrapping. She arrived at Duluth on August 24th in tow of the tug, DANA T. BOWEN.

We have word that the tug and barge combination of LAUREN CASTLE and SEA CASTLE (JOHN L. A. GALSTER), is now back in the Lake Michigan cement trade. The barge was laid up earlier in the year while LAUREN CASTLE was off assisting the Roen barge LILLIAN which was involved in the construction of the new Detroit water intake in Lake Huron above Sarnia. LILLIAN had a large industrial crane fitted on her deck for the special job.

During the month of August, your editor had a chance of seeing once again the big Straits icebreaking carferry CHIEF WAWATAM, and we can state that she is alive and well and living at St. Ignace! The railroad ferry still operates a regular, although rather infrequent, service from St. Ignace to Mackinaw City. Readers will recall that she only recently emerged victorious from the onslaught of the MUSKEGON-MANISTEE tug and barge unit brought to the Straits by the Bultema Dock & Dredge Co. The State of Michigan had forced the recommissioning of the famous icebreaker as a result of the helplessness of the MANISTEE in the heavy ice which plugs the Straits each winter. Nevertheless, the 'Big Chief' has once again come into the news as a result of a petition by the Mackinac Transportation Co., a joint operation of the Soo Line and Penn Central, to abandon the service. For the second time in recent years, area residents have formed a committee to save the CHIEF WAWATAM, since the interruption of the service could lead to a cutback in railroad service to Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The group seems to carry considerable support and we hope that their efforts are successful as the CHIEF has become something of a "landmark" in the area.

On September 14th, the tug HERBERT A. left Cleveland with the old steam dredge KING COAL, and the derrick scow, AFT (the former after end of the STEEL KING). Both hulls had been sold to Marine Salvage Ltd. for scrapping at Humberstone. They had been owned by Esco Dredge & Fill Co. Late on the 14th, the tow ran into heavy weather and KING COAL sank in about 36 feet of water just offshore to the west of Fairport. HERBERT A. and AFT arrived safely at Port Colborne.

The barge, WILTRANCO, was in the news again when she broke loose from the tug, OLIVE L. MOORE, in heavy seas on Lake Huron on September 15th. The barge was soon recaptured but her rudder was damaged in the process and it was necessary to call for help from the Roen tug, JOHN PURVES. The two tugs together managed to make only about 4 m.p.h. with the cranky barge. Then, on September 18th, the PURVES ran aground in the Livingstone Channel of the Detroit River during fog and the barge blocked traffic in the narrow channel for some time. The PURVES was finally freed and the tow reached Cleveland on September 19th. This must be one of the longest voyages in recent years since the barge had cleared Silver Bay on September 3rd.

Salty Changes

Listed are salt water ships which have traded into the lakes along with former names under which they may have appeared in these parts.

AKROTIRI (LUKSEFJELL) See previous report. Sold to Roumanian breakers.

CHRISTIAN (CHRISTIAN SARTORI), 2376, 1955. Cypriot. Sold within Cyprus and renamed INDEPENDENT PIONEER.

CURSA (CATHERINE SARTORI), 2842, 1954. Vest German. Sold Cypriot and renamed MICHRIS.

IVINGHOE BEACON, 13965, 1954. British. Sold Greek.

MANCHESTER EXPORTER, 7403, 1952. British. Sold Greek and renamed GEMINI EXPORTER.

MANCHESTER FAITH (CAIRNESK), 6228, 1959. British. Sold Greek.

MANCHESTER FAME (CAIRNGLEN), 6228, 1959. British. Sold Greek.

OLAU GORM, 6100, 1952. Danish. Sold Greek.

PACSEA (CONTINENTAL TRADER), 17529, 1953. Liberian. Sold Panamanian.

POLARGLIMT, 9999, 1958, Norwegian. Sold to Singapore buyers and renamed LALINDA.

PRINSES MARGRIET, 9336, 1961, Dutch. Sold to Republic of Nauru and renamed ENNA G.

RATHLIN HEAD, 7378, 1953. British. Sold Cypriot and renamed GEORGE.

SENEGAL (LABRADOR, FALCO), 1835, 1947. West German. Sold Greek.

SPARTO (CAPTANTONIS), 134OO, 1957. British. Sold Far Eastern.

TAMPICO (BEATE BOLTEN), 2676, 1954. Liberian. Sold Greek and renamed ROSELEN.

TUSCANY, 7240, 1956. British. Sold within U.K. and renamed FEDERAL HUDSON.


WOODVILLE, 9499, 1958. Norwegian. Sold Liberian and renamed ANGEL.

YASUSHIMA MARU, 9440, 1958. Japanese. Sold Liberian and renamed VENUS ARGOSY.

Delta Queen - A Progress Report

The last of the large nightboats operating on the inland waters of the North American continent, the sternwheel riverboat, DELTA QUEEN, came one step closer to getting a new lease on life recently when the United States Senate passed a maritime bill which included an exemption for the ship from the 1966 Safety at Sea legislation. As the House of Representatives had already passed a similar bill, the fate of the QUEEN now depends on the decision of a Conference Committee to which the bill will go. This is where the toughest fight is expected, but maybe, just maybe, public pressure will be enough to ensure the continued operation of this historic vessel.

Superferry To Be Lengthened

The Wellington Transportation Company of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, announced during the month of August that their giant carferry, SUGAR ISLANDER, would be placed in drydock for an extensive program of enlargement. The craft has long been known for its commodious appointments, its very reasonable charter rates, and its amazing ability to be in the centre of the St. Mary's River (on the sunny side) whenever a lake freighter passes.

All fun aside, the 64-foot auto ferry, built at the Soo in 1947, has become too small for the large amount of traffic passing back and forth from Soo, Michigan, to Sugar Island, a large island located at the head of the lower St. Mary's River. Accordingly her owners arranged for her to go on the drydock of the Soo Welding Company on September 14th and while there, SUGAR ISLANDER will be lengthened by 29 feet. Her beam will be increased by 2 1/2 feet at the same time. It is hoped that the reconstruction will not only increase the ferry's capacity but will add to her speed, an important factor because of the swift current in Little Rapids Cut where the ferry crossing is located. The pilothouse structure will be lifted from the deck during the lengthening operation and will be widened and replaced amidships once the job is completed.

The reconstruction will cost in the area of $40,000 and should be finished early in November. During the rebuilding of SUGAR ISLANDER, her place will be taken by the Drummond Island - DeTour ferry DRUMMOND ISLANDER, but the Chippewa County Board of Commissioners has specified that this vessel must be returned in time for the November deer season on Drummond Island, In addition, the Commissioners have renewed the franchise of the Wellington Transportation Company to operate the Sugar Island ferry for another ten years commencing in April, 1971.

The company is operated by twin brothers, Jim and John Wellington, and their father Charles. Jim is a member of our Society, being an avid follower of the lake shipping scene. As a matter of fact, T.M.H.S, seems to be well represented aboard the ferry since the majority of the specification for the rebuilding were drawn up by the Rev. Edward J. Dowling, S. J., of Detroit, who spends the better part of each summer piloting the ferry!

We wish success to the Wellingtons in their project and we look forward to seeing the lengthened SUGAR ISLANDER, still as busy as ever, back on her run soon, taking care of the odd assortment of vehicles and loads that people insist on taking across the St. Mary's.

Veteran Paddlers For Sale

There was an item in the news recently concerning three old sternwheelers that we thought our readers might find interesting. It seems that, back in 1890, nine small paddlers were built for service on the lower Zambesi River in Africa. They were built to carry sugar between the Sena sugar estates and the Mozambique port of Chinde, a distance of some 35 miles. The ships were each 90 feet long and 30 feet wide with a tonnage of 90, and they drew only three feet of water. Passenger accommodations were apparently rather limited but twenty-three deckhands were carried.

Around the beginning of the year, a new railroad line was opened to connect the sugar producing area with the port of Beira, a larger harbour located south of Chinde. This rendered the old sternwheelers obsolete and three of them are now being offered for sale by Salisbury, Rhodesia, salesman Roland Eithr who says he will part with the steamers for approximately $19,600 each. The report stated that parties in the U.S., Switzerland and Germany were all interested in the little steamers which are capable of nine knots. Unfortunately, the report did not include the names of the vessels so we cannot trace anything more of their history. It also did not mention what became of the other six ships,

Our thanks to Bill Bruce and Scotty McCannell for bringing this little bit of interesting news to our attention.

Ship of the Month No. 10 Campana

Although it scarcely seems possible that so much time has passed, this autumn is the 5th anniversary of the withdrawal of the Canadian Pacific Railway from the Great Lakes passenger trade. Yes, it has been five whole years since you could make the relaxing trip from Georgian Bay to the Canadian Lakehead on the "Great White Twins." For this reason, it seems appropriate that we should kick off Volume III with the history of one of the early units of the C.P.R. lake fleet.

The year 1873 saw the completion, at the Kelvinhaugh, Glasgow, yard of the shipbuilding firm of Aitken and Mansell, of the iron-hulled, twin screw freighter NORTH. This steamer, 240 feet in length, 35 in the beam and 13 in depth, was immediately placed in the South American cattle trade, operating between England and the River Plate. In 1878, she was chartered to make a special trip from Brazil to South Africa with a rather unusual cargo - 700 mules. NORTH arrived at her destination with no difficulties, but subsequent to her arrival, the Supercargo disappeared and with him a large sum of money. The ship was seized and ordered sold to pay off the debt.

In 1881, NORTH was purchased by the Canada Lake Superior Transit Company which had been founded about 1878 by Messrs. Smith & Keightley of Toronto. She was brought to Canada, cut in two sections for the passage upbound through the canals and finally arrived at Collingwood on November 14th, 1881. Over the winter of 1881-2, the steamer was fitted with her passenger cabins and she appeared the next season as an almost-typical combination passenger and 'tween-deck package freight carrier. One rather unusual aspect of her appearance was that her original centre island was retained so that the iron bulkheads continued up to the boat deck amidships and a short portion of the promenade deck was plated up flush with the hull. She was, of course, equipped with side ports for the handling of freight.

The steamer emerged from the transformation under the name CAMPANA and entered her owners' service between Georgian Bay ports and the American and Canadian Lakeheads to replace the small wooden propeller CITY OF WINNIPEG which had burned at Duluth on July 19, 1881, with the loss of three lives. Her first commander was Captain F. B. Anderson,

CAMPANA continued on this run until the tragic events of November 7th, 1885, the day that the last spike in the C.P.R. transcontinental line was driven at Craigellachie. That day saw the stranding of the railway's steel steamer ALGOMA, then in only her second year of service, on the rocks of Isle Royale in Lake Superior with the loss of 48 lives. ALGOMA was one of the C.P.R.'s original three sisterships built especially for the Owen Sound-Lakehead run and her loss left the company with insufficient tonnage to maintain the service. To replace their lost vessel, the railway chartered CAMPANA at the outset of the 1886 season and she operated for them until the appearance of ALGOMA's permanent replacement, the Owen Sound-built MANITOBA, in 1889.

Once the CAMPANA was released from the C.P.R. charter, the Canada Lake Superior Transit Company sold her to the North West Transportation Company of Sarnia, commonly known as the Beatty Line. This firm, incorporated in 1882, was one of the successors of the original partnership of James H. and William Beatty which was formed in 1865. It is interesting to note that, even while CAMPANA, was under charter to the C.P.R., she was operating under Beatty management, for Henry Beatty, a cousin of brothers James and William, had left the family organization in 1882 to manage the lake vessel operations of Canadian Pacific. North West Transportation, which operated in conjunction with the Grand Trunk Railway, ran CAMPANA on their Sarnia-Lakehead service opposite their UNITED EMPIRE of 1883 and, in 1890, the pair was joined by the newly-completed MONARCH. CAMPANA spent the summer of 1893 on the run to the Chicago World's Fair.

The vessel ended her Great Lakes service in 1895 when she was sold to the Quebec Steamship Company. Once again CAMPANA was cut in two sections in order to clear the canals on the outbound trip and the bow and stern were rejoined at Montreal. The steamer entered the service of her owners between Montreal and Pictou, Nova Scotia, and remained in this trade until June 17th, 1909, when she stranded on Wye Rock, located on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River below Quebec City, The ship broke apart, allegedly at the same place where she had been rejoined after her last canal passage, and became a total loss.

And so CAMPANA, always an odd ship during her years on the Great lakes, had returned to the salt water for which she had been built, and ended her days there. In the meantime, she had played a large part in the opening of the Ontario Northwest and had won a place in the memories of many Canadians who had crossed Lakes Huron and Superior in her.

The Loss of the Eastcliffe Hall

By Skip Gillham

In the early hours of July 14th, 1970, tragedy struck on the St. Lawrence River near the Ontario town of Morrisburg. The bulk carrier EASTCLIFFE HALL, bound for Saginaw, Michigan, with a cargo of pig iron, struck a submerged abutment; within minutes, she was on the bottom, taking with her nine lives.

The spars of the sunken EASTCLIFFE HALL can be seen against the hull of the lighter MAPLEHEATH in this Sept. 16, 1970 photo by J. M. Kidd. Assisting are DANIEL McALLISTER and CAPT. M. B. DONNELLYThe EASTCLIFFE HALL (Can. 195604) story began in 1954 when she was built as Hull 262 by Canadian Vickers Ltd. of Montreal, Quebec. At the time of her completion, she measured 252.5 x 43.8 x 20.7. Her gross tonnage was 2140 and she had a deadweight capacity of 2900 tons. A four cylinder Fairbanks-Morse diesel engine provided propulsion. With the opening of the Seaway in 1959, the vessel was lengthened to 342.5 feet and her depth was increased to 24.6, Her gross tonnage became 3335 and her net 2614. The motorship's capacity was now 5750 tons.

EASTCLIFFE HALL served the Hall Corporation as a bulk carrier and moved a variety of cargoes. She generally operated throughout the shipping season, although in 1968 and again in 1969, she was late in fitting out. Better conditions saw her sailing early this year and the season was, for her, busy although uneventful until the fateful fourteenth.

After loading at Sorel, Quebec, the EASTCLIFFE HALL entered the Seaway at Montreal on her last voyage. At about three in the morning, she grounded on a mud bank near Crysler Park but she was able to free herself from the soft bottom. Some crewmen credit this early accident with saving their lives since they had not returned to bed.

The vessel then struck what was originally believed to be Crysler Shoal in the middle of the St. Lawrence, but later investigation revealed that she had struck a submerged object, reported to be a light standard. Her back was broken in two places and one diver stated that her hull resembled "a crushed beer can."

After striking the abutment, the vessel continued about two hundred yards and went down in seventy feet of water just over the Canadian side of the international boundary. The bow filled quickly and the men ran towards the stern. Because of the sharp angle of the deck, the lifeboats could not be freed and the crewmen were forced to jump into the water. Those in the engineroom could not escape due to the pressure , but this pressure came to their aid and literally blasted them through the skylight and into the cold water.

Twenty-one persons had been aboard the EASTCLIFFE HALL. The twelve survivors were found clinging to life jackets and debris. Many of the men, dragged under by the suction of the sinking ship, had to fight their way to the surface to avoid death. The survivors were taken to hospital for treatment of shock and lacerations, but were soon released.

The Captain, Albert Groulx,his sixteen year old son, Alain, the Chief Engineer, Willie Demers, and his family were among those who perished. Divers located all but one body within two days. The remaining crewman's body was presumed to have been washed downstream.

On July 27th, The St. Lawrence Seaway Authority ordered Halco to remove the vessel as it presented a hazard to navigation. Their alternative was to abandon the cargo and remove all the masts as well as to strip all the cabins to the deck. This would leave sufficient water over the hull for navigational purposes and the weight of the cargo would prevent shifting of the wreck. It is understood that Halco agreed to comply with the latter alternative but late reports indicate that McAllister Towing Ltd. will attempt to remove the cargo of pig iron, replacing it with other material.

The Canadian Department of Transport opened a public inquiry at Cornwall in late August to determine the cause of the sinking.

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Scanner, v. 3, n. 1 (October 1970)

Meetings; Milwaukee Clipper; Salty Changes; Delta Queen - A Progress Report; Superferry To Be Lengthened; Veteran Paddlers For Sale; The Loss of the