The Maritime History of the Great Lakes
Scanner, v. 3, n. 3 (December 1970)
Scanner (Toronto, ON), Dec 1970

Bascom, John N., Editor
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Meetings; Holiday Greetings; The Editor's Notebook; Salty Changes; Aft Again; Appointment At Vermilion; Ship of the Month No. 12; The Keystone Fleets
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Dec 1970
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Friday, December 4th - Film on Shipbuilding to be followed by an open slide show.

Friday, January 8th - To be announced.

Holiday Greetings

It has been a good year on the lakes. The steamers have been running hard all year and now it is almost time to rest for a few months. Some old familiar vessels have been retired from service and we will miss them, but still there will be others to take their place. Now it is December and the ships hurry about the steaming cold waters picking up their last cargoes. It is time to lay up.

The Executive of the Toronto Marine Historical Society would like to extend to each and every member its best wishes for the Holiday Season, To you and your families, the merriest of Christmases and happiness in the New Year.

The Editor's Notebook

Once again this month, we are pleased to present another of our fleet lists. Our effort this issue is the direct result of a number of specific requests for something in the Keystone boats, and we hope that all our members will enjoy our story of one of the fleets out of the past.

We would like to mention two new members of our Society,who have joined us in recent weeks. A hearty welcome to Daniel C. McCormick of Masena, New York, and to Oakman E. Mullen of Green Bay, Wisconsin. We intend to publish a complete membership list early in the coming year so all our members can see just how much our group has grown in three short years.

Marine News

Early this year, we mentioned the sale of the craneship WILLIAM H. DONNER, to the Miller Compressing Company of Milwaukee. It has now been announced that the DONNER'S running mate, CAMBRIA, has also been sold to the Milwaukee firm, and with the sale, the Bethlehem Steel Corp. disposes of its last craneship. The ships were actually managed by Boland and Cornelius of Buffalo and, in earlier years, this arrangement also covered the operation of three other craneships, LAGONDA, VENUS and ELBA, all since sold. The CAMBRIA will be delivered to her new owners at the end of her operating season and will be used for the storage and handling of scrap in Milwaukee harbour. She was built in 1910 at Wyandotte by the Detroit Shipbuilding Co. and entered service under the name E. H. UTLEY.

The U. S. Steel self-unloader, W. P. WHITE, is undergoing repairs at Cleveland necessitated by an accident suffered while docked at the Peerless Cement plant at Port Huron, Apparently her port boiler was severely damaged by an "unexplained" loss of water and she will be out of operation for at least a month.

Work has commenced on the stripping of the Canadian National carferry, LANSDOWNE. Romeo Machineshop of Windsor has removed the pilothouse and work is underway on levelling the wooden cabins. Meanwhile, the HURON keeps plugging along under her own steam. The two tugs ordered by C. N. for their river operations are being built by P. M. Yorke & Son Ltd., of Vancouver at the yard of Hike Metal Products located at Wheatley, Ontario.

While on the subject of the river carfloats, we should mention that the Norfolk & Western is still having considerable difficulty with the "Lead Zeppelin," alias ROANOKE. She is proving very cranky and has been involved in an embarrassing number of accidents.

We have learned that the Hall Corp. has already this year carried 650,000 barrels of oil to the Del-Ray plant of the Detroit Edison Co, This information would seem to indicate that rumours of Halco building two more tankers are not unreasonable.

A long-standing ferry service came to an end, apparently, when the Ogdensburg pier of the Canadian Pacific Car and Passenger Transfer Co. burned on September 25th after being struck by lightning. The service across the St. Lawrence between Prescott and Ogdensburg had latterly been maintained by the tug and barge combination of PRESCOTONT and OGDENSBURG. We have heard of no plans for rebuilding the dock.

The tanker, CORPUS CHRISTI, latterly operating on the Gulf of Mexico, has been sold to West Indies Transport Ltd. and has been renamed WITSUPPLY. She was better known to us under the names HORACE S. WILKINSON (I), BELGIUM, MICHIGAN and TEXACO-MICHIGAN, and served on the lakes from 1902 until 1964. She was originally built as a bulk carrier.

We have received confirmation of the safe arrival of several more lakers at European ports where they will be dismantled. PARKDALE arrived at Carthagena, Spain, on June 8, 1970. PORTADOC and NIXON BERRY put in at Vado, Italy, on July 1, 1970, while MARTIAN and MATHEWSTON arrived at the same port later the same month, although the exact date is not known. ALEXANDER LESLIE did not leave Lauzon during the Spring and was still there during the Autumn. Meanwhile, ONTADOC, is lying at Sorel awaiting her turn.

Correspondent Ian Crighton of Winnipeg has advised that plans are afoot for the purchase of the veteran Lake Winnipeg passenger ship, KEENORA, by a group interested in moving her to Fort Francis, Ontario, and restoring her as an attraction, KEENORA, built in 1897 and latterly operated by the Selkirk Navigation Co. Ltd., has lain idle at Selkirk since 1965 when she was retired in accordance with Canadian government safety regulations.

The Medusa Portland Cement Co. has exercised its option to purchase the Interlake steamer, C. H. McCULLOUGH JR. The vessel will continue to be used as a barge by Interlake on the Lake Michigan ore trade during 1971, but she is then expected to be converted to a bulk cement carrier so that she may join MEDUSA CHALLENGER. This latter ship was also a unit of the Interlake fleet and for many years was known as ALEX D. CHISHOLM.

On October 10th, the steamer, JOE S. MORROW, backed into the mud while manoeuvring in Duluth harbour. She was taken to Fraser Shipyards in Superior for repairs to her stern and rudder. Normally a routine item of this sort would not bear mentioning, but the fact that this small ship, considered to be one of the "fringe" units of the American Steamship Co., is even being drydocked and repaired would indicate the severity of the rules applied this year to the BoCo operation of the former Reiss vessels. It is believed that American cannot dispose of any of the Reiss vessels for scrap, no matter how uneconomical they may be.

The two Pielstick diesel engines for the new U. S. Steel freighter under construction at Lorain arrived at Cleveland during November aboard the HELEN MILLER. The ship, chartered to Manchester Liners, picked the engines up in England, where they were built. The diesels were shipped by rail to the American Shipbuilding Company's yard at Lorain.

The first winter lay-up arrival in Toronto this fall was Upper Lakes Shipping's WIARTON which arrived on November 15th with a storage cargo. This steamer, one of the longest on the lakes at the time of her building, has just finished her sixty-fourth season, A product of the Chicago Shipbuilding Company in 1907, she sailed for the Pittsburgh Steamship Company under the name THOMAS LYNCH, until her sale to Upper Lakes in 1965.

The long life of the steamer, WOLVERINE, is about to come to an end. Many of our members will not be familiar with this vessel since she has not operated under her own steam for seventeen years. Built in 1896 by the Globe Iron Works at Cleveland, the ship entered service as the SIR HENRY BESSEMER of the Bessemer Steamship Co. In 1901 she was absorbed into the newly-formed Pittsburgh Steamship Company and she served this fleet until sold in 1928 to the Lakewood Steamship Co. Her operators from 1928 to 1935 were the Valley Camp Coal Co., and in 1929 they renamed her MICHAEL J. BARTELME (II). In 1935 she was transferred to the Columbia Transportation Co., Oglebay Norton & Co. She became WOLVERINE in 1943 and operated as such until she was retired in 1953. The following year, she was sold to the Merritt, Chapman & Scott Corp., and was used as a stone storage barge during the building of the Mackinac Bridge. It was then that she suffered a crack in her hull and she has been used for no useful purpose since. She was sold to the Roen Steamship Co, and has laid idle at Sturgeon Bay ever since. In 1965 she was bought by the Waterman Steamship Co. of New York and traded to the U. S. Maritime Administration for new tonnage. Word now comes from member Oakman Mullen that she was towed from Sturgeon Bay to Green Bay, Wisconsin, on November 11th, and that she is to be dismantled.

Over the last few seasons, the cost of bunker coal has gone spiralling up while the supply has decreased. As a result, it seems that the day of the coal-fired steamer is rapidly passing, especially on the lower lakes. Scott Misener Steamships Ltd., has decided to convert their ROYALTON to oil fuel and the job will be done this winter at Hamilton. We understand that Upper Lakes Shipping is considering the same type of conversion for POINTE NOIRE.

It seems that while the CHARLES DICK goes about her task of digging sand on Lake Erie, her Master, Capt. John Leonard, spends a good deal of time observing the goings on in marine circles. He has sent word of several more early layups of American vessels. SAMUEL MATHER and WALTER E. WATSON have gone to the "wall" and the "Prog Pond" respectively (!) in Toledo while the cement carrier, J. B. FORD, is also now at this port for drydocking. KINSMAN VOYAGER and LEWIS G. HARRIMAN both went to Buffalo with storage while the barge WILTRANCO tied up at Escanaba. ROBERT HOBSON and COL. JAMES PICKANDS both are at Superior and HARRY L. ALLEN and SILVER BAY laid up in the Corrigan McKinney basin at Cleveland,

A report received from the noted river historian, Capt. Frederick Way, Jr., indicates that DELTA QUEEN unloaded her final passengers at New Orleans on November 1st and was then laid up in the Industrial Canal. Your Editor does not know New Orleans harbour, but a place called an "Industrial Canal" does not sound like a fitting place for the lady to repose. There has been no further word from the Greene Line about the possibility of either a new boat or the continued operation of the D.Q.

The small Lake Ontario sandsucker, C. W. CADWELL, was the victim recently of an accident which left her resting on the bottom of the Niagara River. On the night of November 25th, 1970, she was attempting to dock at Queenston when she struck the wharf, severely damaging her hull plating, Her crew was apparently able to beach the steamer and she settled with her bow dry but her stern section flooded. It remains to be seen whether her owners will consider repairing the little veteran. The CADWELL was built in 1911 at Superior, Wisconsin, by the Superior Shipbuilding Company.

Salty Changes

Listed are salt water ships which have traded into the lakes along with former names under which they may have appeared in these parts.

ANCHA (ALEXANDRA SARTORI) 2756 - 1954. West German. Sold Cypriot and renamed CAROLINE.

BANNERCLIFF, 7328 - 1948. British. Sold Cypriot and renamed SILVER COAST.

CATE BROVIG, 10047 - 1952. Norwegian. Sold Greek and renamed STAVROS T.

CHRISTIAN (See report Vol. III, No. l). Renamed CHRYSOVALANDOU.

ELIN HOPE, 13073 - 1961. Norwegian. Sold Far Eastern.

EMMANUEL M. (TORONTO CITY (I)), 4663 - 1947-49. Stranded off Scharhorn Dec. 3, 1967. Refloated July 7, 1970, and sold to German breakers. Arrived at Hamburg July 15, 1970.

ENTAN (MAPLE HILL, FORT VERCHERES), 7058 - 1943, (Montreal). Panamanian, Sold to Japanese breakers.

GHISLAIN (GHISLAIN MARIE), 1134 - 1949. Sold within Canada and renamed ANIK.

HESTIA, 2512 - 1951. West German. Sold Cypriot and renamed AGIA MARINA.

IRISH ASH, 11712 - 1958. Irish. Sold Greek,

IRISH MAPLE, 8288 - 1957. Irish, Sold Greek and renamed ALIAKMON PIONEER.

KAMPHORN (ADRIANA), 1600 - 1953. West German. Sold Dutch and renamed WEST VLIELAND.

KIFFA (FRANCISCA SARTORI), 2588 - 1954. West German. Sold Cypriot; renamed PANAGIA.

KORBACH, 1861 - 1955. West German. Sold Liberian and renamed PATRICIA.

LELETA (GEORGIOS MANOLAKIS) 10060 - 1939. Greek. Sold Dutch and renamed LETA.

LONDON BREEZE (WELSH TRADER), 7897 - 1954. British (Hong Kong). Sold within Hong Kong and renamed GOLDEN BRIDGE.

LYNGENFJORD 3791 - 1948. Norwegian. Sold within Norway and renamed AMRONTO.

MANCHESTER EXPORTER, 7403 - 1952. British. Sold Greek and renamed GEMINI EXPLORER.

RIALTO, 4993 - 1949. British. Sold Cypriot and renamed SANDRA.

AUGUSTE SCHULTE (VERIA) 721 - 1952. West German. Sold Bahamian and renamed CARIBBEAN

GUNTHER SCHULTE (KURD ARIT), 1813 - 1953. West German. Sold Greek and renamed SKIATHOS.

SUNPOLYNA, 12400- 1956. Norwegian. Sold Greek and renamed ARISTILLOS.

WALDECK, 2968 - 1953. West German. Sold Greek and renamed BELIA.

Aft Again

The derrick scow AFT, formerly STEEL KING's stern section, reposes in the Marine Salvage scrapyard. Oct. 17, 1970. Photo by J. H. Bascom.Remember last issue when we asked you to guess the identity of the pilothouse that served as a workhouse on the deck of the derrick scow, AFT? Well, by the time our little quiz appeared in print, the workmen of Marine Salvage Ltd. had already begun the job of dismantling the remains of the former STEEL KING. So much for the chance to observe the old house up close!

Since it is a little unfair to ask a question and then take away the clues before anyone can get the answer, we are repeating the question this month. Take a good long look at the photo of AFT that appears in this issue. Now, paint the house white, put in a few panes of glass, and add two doors and a sunvisor. Then think of a ship that lost her old pilothouse (and, of course, got a new one) a few years before STEEL KING was cut down to a barge in 1955. The ship changed her registry recently.

We will admit that it took us a little while to work this one out ourselves, but this wheelhouse has several distinctive characteristics that should lead you to the answer. Now that you have had a chance to look at the picture and consider the clues, we shall expect answers from all of those ship fans who think that they can identify a steamer by the colour of her smoke over the horizon.

Appointment At Vermilion

On October 31st, Capt. H. C. Inches, Curator of the Great Lakes Historical Society Museum at Vermilion, Ohio, retired after serving in that capacity for a number of years.

Into his place has stepped one of our Society's members, Charles Matt of Huron, Ohio, and we wish him all the best in his new position. It seems that T.M.H.S. members are really getting around!

Ship of the Month No. 12 To Niagara From The Clyde

This feature of our newsletter usually deals only with the history of one particular vessel, but this month, as a sort of Christmas Special, we have the story of a famous set of marine engines and the two distinguished ships in which they served to carry thousands of Torontonians to the Niagara River and back.

In 1887, an order was placed with the firm of Rankin, Blackmore & Company, Greenock, Scotland, for the engines to power a new Lake Ontario excursion steamer. The job of designing the machinery was given to 21 year old Archie Rankin and he turned out a magnificent set of inclined compound engines with high and low pressure cylinders of 45 and 84 inches, and a stroke of 66 inches. They developed 2000 horsepower on steam supplied by six coal-fired boilers, each measuring 8'9" by 17'. Upon completion, the engines were taken down and shipped to the town of Deseronto on the Bay of Quinte where they were readied for installation.

The year 1886 saw the Niagara Navigation Co. doing a land-office business in the excursion trade from Toronto to Niagara with their steamer CHICORA. As good a ship as the former blockade runner was, she just could not handle all the traffic and so the company placed an order with E. W. Rathbun and Co., Deseronto, for a new steamer. The vessel was designed by Robert Morton, a noted Glasgow designer of Clyde steamers, and her hull was very similar to the Clyde Sidewheeler OZONE. The hull of the new vessel was built at the Rathbun shipyard by W. C. White of Montreal using Dalzell steel shipped over from Scotland.

Construction started on May 24, 1887, and on November 1st of the same year, the hull took to the waters of the Bay of Quinte. Miss Constance Cumberland, daughter of the Niagara Navigation Company's Vice-President, Barlow Cumberland, christened the steamer CIBOLA, an Indian name meaning "the Buffalo." Into the hull were placed Archie Rankin's engines, and Rathbun's foreman carpenter, J. Whalen, began work on the upperworks. The interior mahogany trim and various decorations were done by the William Wright Co. of Detroit. The Edison Co. of New York supplied what was then a touch of great luxury, electric lighting.

The overall length of CIBOLA was 260 feet. Her beam was 28'6" (52 feet over the guards) and she had a draft of 6'6" with a depth of hold of 11'6". She was assigned official number 92732. Her hull was divided into five watertight compartments and her deck was made of 3 1/2" pine. On her trials she managed a speed of 20 m.p.h. and more than satisfied her builders and owners.

It had been arranged that her first revenue trip would be on June 10th, 1888, when she was scheduled to take a load of troops to summer camp at Niagara-on-the-Lake. As it happened, her upperworks were not completed when it came time to leave the builder's yard at Deseronto and so the carpenters stayed aboard and finished the cabins while the steamer was en route to Toronto.

CIBOLA entered service as scheduled and proved a great success on the popular excursion run. Her first commander was Capt. J. McCorquodale, who was succeeded, at the time of his death in 1891, by Capt. J. McGiffin. He in turn left to take over as Master of the flagship CHIPPEWA upon her completion in 1893. CIBOLA's third Master was Capt. W. H. Solmes who commanded her for the rest of her active life.

Unhappily, CIBOLA was not to serve the Niagara Route for long. While tied up for the night at Lewiston, New York, on July 15, 1895, the steamer caught fire and burned to the main deck with the loss of one life. Third Engineer William Hammond was trapped below and was unable to escape through a porthole into which he had attempted to crawl. Meanwhile, the burning ship had floated free of the Lewiston dock and was carried downstream by the current. She was finally captured and towed to a wharf at Youngstown, New York, at the mouth of the river, but not before she was beyond any hope of being saved from complete gutting. When the wreck had finally cooled and the remains had been inspected, the hull was towed to Toronto where Archie Rankin's engines and boilers were removed and taken to the Bertram Engine Works. The hull itself lay forgotten for nearly thirty years and, although it has never been verified by the finding of the remains, it is believed that she was simply covered over with fill during the reshaping of the Toronto waterfront in the early 1920's.

During the period of CIBOLA's operation, the N.N.Co. fleet had been expanded by the addition of the mighty beam-engined CHIPPEWA which made her first run on July 26,1893. Still, the company had felt that they might possibly require, at some future time, another vessel, and plans had accordingly been drawn up. Upon the demise of CIBOLA, these plans were immediately implemented and an order for the new ship was placed with the Bertram Engine & Shipbuilding Co., Toronto.

The new steamer came from the drawing board of one Arendt Angstrom, a noted marine architect who was to become General Manager of the Canadian Shipbuilding Co., the successor to the Bertram firm. He had been responsible for CHIPPEWA and was later to produce such masterpieces as the last Niagara steamer, CAYUGA, and the magnificent nightboat, KINGSTON. In the excellence of his design, he ranks along with the great Frank E. Kirby as one of the leading designers of lake passenger vessels.

Work on the new steel-hulled sidewheeler progressed rapidly and on May 25, 1896, the hull was launched into Toronto Bay at Bertram's yard at the foot of Bathurst Street, The vessel was sponsored by Miss Mildred Cumberland, another daughter of the N.N.Co. Vice-President, and by Miss Clara Foy, daughter of the company's General Manager, John Foy. She was named CORONA, a name chosen by Lady Smith, wife of N.N.Co. President, Sir Frank Smith. The word "corona" refers to the bright rays seen around the sun during a total eclipse, and it was implied that the new steamer was succeeding the "eclipsed" CIBOLA.

During the building of the hull, Bertrams had been refurbishing the Rankin engines and they were now placed into CORONA, apparently none the worse for their trial by fire. The upperworks of the ship were completed by the builders after the launching and CORONA was ready for service at the opening of the 1897 season. She had a length of 270'3", a beam (hull) of 32'4 and a depth of 12'5". Her gross tonnage was 1274 and net, 649. She was given official number 103673.

CORONA proved a successful addition to the N.N.Co. fleet and brought the line back to full strength. On October 10th, 1901, she had the distinction of serving as a royal yacht when the Duke and Duchess of York, later to become King George V and Queen Mary, visited Niagara. CORONA carried the royal party from Niagara-on-the-Lake to Queenston and return,

CORONA was commanded by a number of notable men, among them being Captains William Malcolm, C, J. Smith, B. A.Bongard, and Henry King. The latter sailed the ship in 1911 and was on the bridge when, on the stormy day of June 8, as she was inbound at the Toronto Eastern Gap, CORONA was struck by a series of waves and pounded against the west pier-head. She suffered serious damage to her port wheel and had to be taken to the Polson Iron Works for repairs after the wreckage of the paddle-box had been cleared enough to permit the operation of the engines. Capt. King had previously commanded CHICORA and later became an Examiner of Masters and Mates. It is said that he was the first N.N.Co, Captain to attempt the dangerous turn in the river at Queenston by night. Your Editor well remembers this gentleman as he was a long-time resident of Ward's Island. He died at Toronto in 1968 at the age of 101.

In June, 1913, the Niagara Navigation Co. was purchased by the Richelieu and Ontario Navigation Co. and became a division of the larger fleet. The following year, R & O itself was swallowed up by the newly-formed Canada Steamship Lines Ltd., Montreal, and CORONA served this latter firm for the rest of her years. CORONA, of course, spent most of her life on the Toronto-Niagara run, but for a short time during the early 1920's she was placed on the Toronto to Hamilton route. After a period of inactivity spent in the eastern regions of Toronto Harbour, she was refitted about 1927 and re-entered the Niagara service as third boat to CAYUGA and CHIPPEWA.

CORONA remained on her old run until 1933. when the effects of the Depression were making themselves felt on the local passenger operations. She was laid up in the Toronto Ship Channel and from time to time was joined by CAPE TRINITY and CAPE ETERNITY and, in 1936, by the great CHIPPEWA herself. CORONA never ran again. By 1937, her wooden cabins had deteriorated badly and the automobile had made such inroads into the excursion trade that there was no justification for reactivating her. Towards the end, she was stripped of much of her equipment, and, fortunately, her triple chime whistle was acquired by the Toronto Dry Dock Co. Ltd. It now serves to welcome visitors to the Marine Museum of Upper Canada.

CORONA was sold in September of 1937 to Frankel Brothers Ltd. , a. local scrap dealer, and in the fall of the year was towed to Buffalo by the tug R.C.C. NO. 2. There, she was broken up, and with her went Archie Rankin's engines, the spirit of two fine excursion steamers, and memories by the bushelful of the days before the era of the automobile, when the passenger boats reigned supreme.

The Keystone Fleets

In 1909, the Montreal Light, Heat & Power Co., Ltd., established a subsidiary company for the purpose of transporting coal to its Montreal plant. This concern was known as Keystone Transports Ltd. and it began operations immediately by chartering two 230-foot Norwegian freighters to carry coal from Sandusky to Montreal. These ships, DRONNING MAUD and C. SUNDT, appear to have originated the familiar Keystone funnel design.

DEEPWATER, upboundwith a load of pulpwood, at Homer in the Welland Canal on July 8, 1934. Photo by J. M. KiddThe same year, 1909, three canal type bulk carriers were ordered from the famous British shipyard of Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, at Wallsend-on-Tyne. They were christened KEYWEST, KEYPORT and KEYSTORM, but the last unit of the trio was short-lived as she became a total loss by stranding on Scow Island Shoal in the St. Lawrence in 1912. During the years of World War I when ships were at a premium, several attempts were made at salvaging KEYSTORM but all were unsuccessful.

The company's first and only Canadian-built carrier, KEYBELL, was built for the fleet at Collingwood in 1912. All the other canallers owned by the company came from yards in Great Britain.

During the first war, the Keystone ships hauled coal on the Atlantic coast in the winter months. During the second, they strayed as far from the Great Lakes as the British Isles and the Caribbean.

TREVISA is seen at Milwaukee during the 1930's in this photo by Edwin WilsonIn 1923, the Trevisa Steamship Co. was formed as an affiliate and in 1927 Water Transports Ltd. was incorporated in the same manner. The Trevisa Steamship Co. was absorbed in 1928 into another affiliate, the newly-incorporated Canadian Lake Carriers Ltd. This latter firm swallowed up Water Transports Ltd. in 1935 and was itself absorbed by the original Keystone Transports Ltd., in 1939.

The Province of Quebec (Hydro Quebec) took over all power facilities in that province during 1957. However, the Montreal Light, Heat & Power coke operation at Ville la Salle, Quebec, which was fed by the Keystone ships, was taken over by the Quebec Natural Gas Corp., Montreal (later Gaz Metropolitain), in the same year. At the time of this corporate change, Keystone Transports Ltd. was taken over by the Quebec Natural Gas Corporation's LaVerendrye Line Ltd., of Ville la Salle.

KEYSTATE has just left Welland Canal Lock 8, upbound, in this view taken by J. M. Kidd at Port Colborne, July 2, 1951.In February 1962, a further change took place. LaVerendrye Line Ltd. was acquired by the Hall Corporation of Canada Ltd. Although several of the Hall canallers were transferred to the newly acquired fleet, the only Keystone ship operated by LaVerendrye after the purchase by Halco, was KEYSHEY. She operated for several months late in 1963 under Hall colours.

During the early years, the "Key" boats were painted a dark olive green colour with orange boot top. Later, the hulls became black. Deckhouses were always white and from inception the stacks were black with a silver band on which was superimposed a red keystone with the letter "K" in white on it.

"Water" ships had black hulls while the stack design was black with a silver band and a white "W" in a red circle. Canadian Lake Carriers vessels also had black hulls, but their stack colours were black, and a silver band with a silver shield, outlined in red, carrying the letters "C.L.C.L." in red in the four quarters. Occasional variations in these colours have been observed.

There follows a listing of all ships owned by Keystone or its affiliates.

KEYBAR (147763) 1923 Smith's Dock Co. Ltd., South-Bank-on-Tees, Hull 778. 250.4 x 42.6 x 16.9. Gross 1723, net 1087. Retired Autumn 1961 and laid up at Kingston. Towed to Port Dalhousie June 1, 1963, and scrapped in drydock October 1963 by A. Newman & Co. Owners: l) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1923-57). 2) LaVerendrye Line Ltd. (1957-63).

KEYBELL (l3111l) 1912, Collingwood Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Hull 37. 258.0 x 42.6 x 17.2. Gross 1730, net 1254. Retired Autumn 1957 and laid up at Kingston. Scrapped at Kingston 1961. Owners: l) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1912-57). 2) LaVerendrye Line Ltd. (1957-61).

KEYDON (a) SWIFTWATER (38) (147749). 1927 Cowpen Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Blyth, Hull 238. 252.0 x 42.6 x 18.0. Gross 1739, net 1044. Requisitioned by Canadian government for Caribbean bauxite trade 1940. Retired Autumn 1958 and laid up at Kingston. Scrapped at Kingston 1961. Owners: l) Water Transports Ltd. (1927-35). 2) Canadian Lake Carriers Ltd. (1935-39). 3) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1939-57). 4) LaVerendrye Line Ltd. (l957-6l)

KEYHOLT (a) STILLWATER (38) (147799). 1928 Smith's Dock Co. Ltd., South-Bank-on-Tees, Hull 839. 253.0 x 43.4 x 18.4. Gross 1796, net 1134. Name TREMARA proposed in 1938 but apparently never made official. Requisitioned by Canadian government for Caribbean bauxite trade 1940. Transferred to U.S. Maritime Commission 1942. Stranded 2 miles off Demarara River Delta, British Guiana, December 1942. Remains are still visible and a navigation light is positioned atop the wreck. Owners: l) Water Transports Ltd. (1928-35). 2) Canadian Lake Carriers Ltd. (1935-39). 3) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1939-40).

KEYMONT (47) (a) DEEPWATER (38), (c) HAMILDOC (II) (147797). 1928 Smith's Dock Co. Ltd., South-Bank-on-Tees, Hull 837. 253.0 x 43.4 x 18.4. Gross 1796, net 1134. Requisitioned by Canadian government for Caribbean bauxite trade 1940. Transferred to U.S. Maritime Commission 1942. Declared surplus 1945. Sold 1946 to Paterson and returned to Lakes 1947. Retired October, 1961, and laid up at Port Dalhousie. Scrapped in drydock 1962 by A. Newman & Co. Owners: l) Water Transports Ltd. (1928-35). 2) Canadian Lake Carriers Ltd. (1935-39). 3) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1939-40). 4) Paterson Steamships Ltd. (later N.M.Paterson & Sons Ltd) (1946-61).

KEYNOR (133558). 1914 North of Ireland Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Londonderry, Hull 58. 250.0 x 42.5 x 17.4. Gross 1806, net 1090. Saw service on salt water during World War I. Requisitioned by Canadian government for Caribbean bauxite trade 1940. Later served in British coastal trade. Returned to lakes 1948. Retired Autumn 1958 and laid up at Kingston. Scrapped at Kingston 1961. Owners: l) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1914-57). 2) LaVerendrye Line Ltd. (1957-61).

KEYPORT (125459). 1909 Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd., Wallsend-on-Tyne. Hull 818. 250.1 x 42.5 x 17.9. Gross 1721, net 1298. Retired Autumn 1961 and laid up at Kingston, Towed to Port Dalhousie June 5, 1963, and broken up in drydock by A.Newman & Co. 1963. Owners: (l) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1909-57). 2) LaVerendrye Line Ltd. (1957-63).

KEYSHEY (a) CLEARWATER (28), (b) TRENORA (49) (147798). 1928 Smith's Dock Co. Ltd., South-Bank-on-Tees, Hull 838. 253.0 x 43.4 x 18.4. Gross 1796 net 1134. Stranded May 21, 1928, near Trinity Bay, 10 miles east of Port des Monts, Que., in the St. Lawrence River. Abandoned to insurers. Salvaged and returned to service 1928. Retired Autumn 1961 and laid up at Kingston. Stripped 1963 in preparation for scrapping but reactivated Autumn 1963 in Hall colours. Lay idle at Kingston 1963-64 and again stripped 1965. Used to lighter Liberty ship PROTOSTATIS grounded near Kingston on Quebec Head, Wolfe Island, during Winter 1965-66. Towed to Toronto with cargo of salvaged scrap February 1966. Returned to Kingston during Spring 1966 and then to Lauzon, Que. Arrived at Bilbao, Spain, May 24, 1967, in tandem tow with ALGOSOO. Scrapped by Cia Espanol de Demolicion Naval. Owners; l) Water Transports Ltd. (1928). 2) Trevisa Steamship Co. Ltd. (1928). 3) Canadian Lake Carriers Ltd. (1928-39). 4) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1939-57). 5) LaVerendrye Line Ltd. (1957-65). 6) Ship Repair & Supply Ltd. (1965-67).

KEYSTATE (l4776l). 1923 Smith's Dock Co. Ltd., South-Bank-on-Tees, Hull 777. 250.3 x 42.6 x 16.9. Gross 1729, net 1084. Retired Autumn 1961 and laid up at Kingston. Scrapped at Kingston 1963-64. Owners: l) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1923-57). 2) LaVerendrye Line Ltd. (1957-63).

KEYSTORM (129749). 1910 Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd., Wallsend-on-Tyne. 250.0 x 42.6 x 18.0. Gross 1720, net 1295. Stranded October 26, 1912, on Scow Island Shoal, St. Lawrence River, near Alexandria Bay, while bound with coal Charlotte to Montreal. Salvage attempts unsuccessful. Owners: l) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1910-12).

KEYVIVE (128830). 1913 Smith's Dock Co. Ltd., South-Bank-on-Tees, Hull 551. 250.0 x 42.5 x 17.4. Gross 1768, net 1045. Retired Autumn 1961 and laid up at Kingston. Scrapped at Kingston 1963-64. Owners: l) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1913-57). 2) LaVerendrye Line Ltd. (1957-63).

KEYWEST (I) (125458). 1909 Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd., Wallsend-on-Tyne, Hull 817. 250.0 x 42.5 x 18.0. Gross 1725, net 1298. Ran down and sank schooner OLIVER MOWAT off False Duck Islands, Lake Ontario, September 21, 1921, with loss of 3 lives. Stranded May 10, 1935, 1/4 mile from Main Duck Island lighthouse, Lake Ontario, during fog. Salvaged. Retired and laid up at Kingston 1946. Scrapped 1947 at Kingston and remains shipped by rail to Algoma Steel, Sault Ste. Marie. Owners: l) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1909-47).

KEYWEST (II), (a) SUREWATER (49) (147750). 1927 Cowpen Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Blyth, Hull 239. 252.0 x 42.5 x 18.0. Gross 1739, net 1044. Requisitioned by Canadian government for Caribbean bauxite trade 1940. Retired Autumn 1958 and laid up at Kingston. Scrapped at Kingston 1961. Owners: (l) Water Transports Ltd. (1927-35). 2) Canadian Lake Carriers Ltd. (1935-39). 3) Keystone Transports Ltd. (1939057). 4) LaVerendrye Line Ltd. (1957-61).

TREVISA (135573). 1915 North of Ireland Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Londonderry. 250.0 x 42.5 x 17.4. Gross 1813, net 1095. Built for lake trade but taken over for war service on delivery. Operated in British coastal trade by Tauve Steam Shipping Co., Cardiff, Wales. Brought to lakes 1922. Requisitioned by Canadian government for Caribbean bauxite trade but immediately transferred to British Ministry of War Transport. Torpedoed and sunk 600 miles off the Irish coast, October 15, 1940. Owners: l) Export Steamship Go. Ltd., (1922-23). 2) Trevisa Steamship Co. Ltd.. (1923-28). 3) Canadian Lake Carriers Ltd., (1928-39). 4) Keystone Transports Ltd.,(1939-40).

We have listed the vessels by their "Key" names as this is the way they were known to most of our members and accordingly a particular ship is easier to locate. Special thanks are due to Jim Kidd for his assistance in helping to sort out this rather involved corporate history.

Unfortunately, not too much information is available on the two original vessels chartered to the fleet. This much, however, is known. DRONNING MAUD was built in 1907 by Laxevaags at Bergen, Norway. She measured 229 x 35 x 16. C. SUNDT was built in 1902 for William Hansen of Bergen and grossed 1105 tons. She was torpedoed and sunk, with the loss of all hands, on March 24th, 1917, while bound from Gothenburg to Hull.

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Scanner, v. 3, n. 3 (December 1970)

Meetings; Holiday Greetings; The Editor's Notebook; Salty Changes; Aft Again; Appointment At Vermilion; Ship of the Month No. 12; The Keystone Fleets