The Maritime History of the Great Lakes
Scanner, v. 4, n. 5 (February 1972)
Scanner (Toronto, ON), Feb 1972

Bascom, John N., Editor
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Meetings; The Editor's Notebook; The Death of a Queen; An Explanation of Common Tonnage Measurements.; Ship of the Month No. 19; Correction; Late Marine News
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Feb 1972
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Toronto Marine Historical Society
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Friday, February 4th - Mr. Thomas E. Appleton, Marine Historian of the Canadian Department of Transport, will give an illustrated address.

Friday, March 3rd - Mr. Alan Howard will speak on "My Adventures with the CAYUGA", the story of Toronto's last passenger steamer.

The January meeting was well attended and members enjoyed a program by Paul Sherlock dealing with last winter's ice problems. Of special interest were many excellent slides taken from the air and from the veteran icebreaker N. B. McLEAN. Our thanks to Paul for making the trip over to address the gathering.

The Editor's Notebook

We think that now would be a good time to thank our Program Committee members "Scotty" McCannell and Gordon Turner for their excellent work in lining up our current series of meetings. These fellows have jumped into a difficult task with great enthusiasm and are doing an admirable job.

While we are handing out thanks, we should mention all those correspondents who do such a great job of digging up news items for us during the year. We are not thinking solely of those within the shipping business who keep us up to date on major developments, but also of those among us whose interest is non-professional and who report their observations. Without their help, we would have a hard time filling these pages. However, as mentioned last month, we do need your help in suggesting subjects for feature articles. We cannot hope to please many members if we do not know what your interests are.

In the New Member Department, wo extend a most hearty welcome to C. E. Stein of Wheatley, Ontario.

Marine News

Recently sold for scrapping is OTTO M. REISS, seen being chased up Lake Nicolet by JOHN O. McKELLAR, August 9, 1970. Photo by the Editor.The seven former Reiss and Gartland ships which the American Shipbuilding Co. had agreed to purchase from the American Steamship Co. (Boland and Cornelius) were officially transferred on January 10th. The selling firm was actually the Edison Steamship Co., a BoCo subsidiary, and once purchased by AmShip, the vessels were transferred to its operating subsidiary, the Kinsman Marine Transit Co. The carriers involved are CHICAGO TRADER, JOE S. MORROW, OTTO M. REISS, JOHN P. REISS, WILLIAM A. REISS, RAYMOND H. REISS and GEORGE D. GOBLE. Kinsman, however, turned around and the same day resold OTTO M. REISS and JOHN P. REISS the only units of the group that did not operate in 1971, to United Steel & Metals who will dismantle them at Hamilton. There has been no definite word on how the others will be assimilated into the Kinsman fleet and the only sign so far of a weeding out of older Steinbrenner steamers has been the report that scrap bids have been invited for the disposal of JAMES E. FERRIS which was acquired in 1969 from the Buckeye Steamship Co. This is undoubtedly a sad development as the FERRIS was a particularly handsome ship and was always kept in immaculate condition by her latest owners. She, along with JOE S. MORROW and OTTO M. REISS were the last American upper lake bulk carriers under 500 feet in length. The asking of scrap bids does not, however, mean that JAMES E. FERRIS will definitely be retired and a final decision in this case will undoubtedly depend upon economic conditions in the coining shipping season.

At the time of writing, officials of the Kinsman Marine Transit Co. and the Litton organization were still holding discussions on the proposed purchase by Kinsman (or rather by the parent firm, AmShip) of Litton's lake operations including Erie Marine Inc. and the Wilson Marine Transit Co. It seems that problems, presumably of a monetary nature, have developed and there is considerable doubt as to whether the deal will be concluded. If the sale is not consummated, it will be interesting to see what work will be found for the Wilson fleet now that the contract to carry ore for the Republic Steel Corp. has been lost to the Cleveland Cliffs Steamship Co.

It has been announced that the three Maritime Commission class steamers of the Wilson fleet will have their decks strapped this winter. THOMAS WILSON will have the work done at Erie while J. H. HILLMAN JR. and J. BURTON AYERS will he handled at Lorain. The operation is, of course, designed to give more longitudinal strength to the hull so that the vessels may gain an extra six inches of draft and thus increase their carrying capacity.

It seems that the fortunes of the Escanaba Towing Co. have taken a turn for the worse. At one time this year, it had in operation three barges, WILTRANCO, A. E. NETTLETON and O. S. McFARLAND, as well as two tugs OLIVE L. MOORE and LEE REUBEN. However, the U.S.Coast Guard has withdrawn the certificates of WILTRANCO and McFARLAND due to their condition. The former is now laid up at Escanaba along with the MOORE while the MCFARLAND is being used in a stationary capacity to assist in unloading of NETTLETON which is currently in service on the Toledo to Detroit coal run. The future of the NETTLETON herself is rather undecided in view of the possible sale of the ship along with other Wilson vessels to Kinsman.

The Boland and Cornelius self-unloader PETER REISS, laid up for some months at Toledo and allegedly for sale in connection with the BoCo divestiture of Reiss vessels, was back in operation recently. The veteran steamer was operating in the Detroit River area in mid-January. For a number of years, PETER REISS has been used in the Toledo-Detroit winter coal run.

Earlier reports that the Erie Sand Steamship Co. would operate both J. L. REISS and SIDNEY E. SMITH JR. in 1972 have proven to be incorrect. Over the winter, the oil burners are being removed from the SMITH and placed in the REISS to make her more economical to operate. The first SMITH will revert to her original name of ALPENA. She will then be held in reserve and there are indications that the company might consider deiselizing the ship and converting her to a sand carrier. J. L. REISS will be renamed SIDNEY E. SMITH Jr.(II)

Speaking of conversions to oil fuel, we have learned that MARTHA HINDMAN is being so converted this winter at Owen Sound. It is only natural that any ship which may be used in the grain trade to the St. Lawrence should be an oil burner since bunker coal is no longer available east of Port Colborne.

In our last issue, we reported the sale of three idle lakers, OREFAX, BULKARIER and HUTCHCLIFFE HALL to a consortium of dredging contractors for use in the lower St. Lawrence. We now learn that a fourth ship is involved, the Hall Corp. tanker CREEK TRANSPORT which has been idle at Sorel since 1970. All four vessels will be reduced to flat scows and present indications are that they will be needed for about four years.

At the end of her last trip, THOROLD steams into Ramey's Bend next to G. G. POST December 18, 1971. Photo by the EditorThe former Comet Enterprises Ltd. steamer THOROLD, recently sold to Marine Salvage Ltd. and lying idle at Ramey's Bend since December 18, 1971, has been renamed THORO. This move is apparently designed so that another unit of the Quebec & Ontario Transportation Co. Ltd. fleet may be given the name of the former flagship. Meanwhile, there has been no firm decision on the disposition of the older vessel.

At the present time we are unable to say anything more definite simply because the plans of the company are not yet firm, but suffice it to say that we hope all our readers have managed to get an excellent photograph of the tanker IMPERIAL WINDSOR during the last few years .......

A major fire occurred on January 2nd at the Pillsbury flour mill in Buffalo. Extensive damage was suffered by the mill building itself although the fire, believed started by welders, did not spread to the elevator. The mill is located on the old City Ship Canal and moored alongside were the Cliffs steamers PONTIAC and WILLIAM P. SNYDER JR. They were pulled away before any major damage could be done to them but television coverage did show part of the after cabin on PONTIAC to be afire.

Work on the lengthening of CHARLES M. BEEGHLY is progressing well at Superior, Wisconsin, and it is planned to have her ready for service in mid-May. Her owners have estimated that the ship will lose very little by way of speed with the addition of the 96-foot midsection but her carrying capacity will be greatly increased. When commissioned, she may well be the largest ship operating on the lakes if STEWART J. CORT is still kept in port by the troubles that plagued her last year.

A second lengthening operation is in progress during the winter months. Arnold Line's diesel ferry HURON, a regular on the Straits of Mackinac service, is being stretched by 20 feet in the drydock of the Soo Welding Co. at the Michigan Sault. HURON was built at Erie, Pennsylvania, in 1955.

The U.S. Coast Guard, forced by winter weather conditions to abandon attempts to retrieve its sunken hovercraft, has brought another craft of the same type to the lakes. The new machine has had polystyrene foam placed in its air tanks in the hope that it will avoid the fate of its predecessor. Meanwhile, the U.S.C.G. is embarking on a program of consolidation of services which mean, in fact, a reduction in the number of ships in commission. The only effect on the lakes area will be the withdrawal of the buoy tender WOODBINE, currently stationed at Grand Haven, Michigan. The 1944-built tender will be decommissioned in February and there do not appear to be any plans for a permanent replacement, although some other ship may fill in at Grand Haven.

We have received confirmation of the sale by the Bultema Dock & Dredge Co. of its 140 foot tug MUSKEGON to Hannah Inland Waterways Corp., Chicago. The vessel has been renamed JAMES A. HANNAH. Built in 1945 at Pt. Pleasant, West Virginia, as LT-820, the tug will be best remembered for her part in Bultema's unsuccessful attempt to replace the Straits of Mackinac steam railway ferry CHIEF WAWATAM with a tug and barge combination several years ago.

The former passenger and package freight motorship NORMAC has been open since 1970 as a restaurant in Toronto Harbour. Moored at the foot of Yonge Street, NORMAC (or Captain John's Harbour Boat Restaurant as she is more properly known) has enjoyed considerable success. Now, however, the ship has been rendered almost unrecognizable by the stripping off of the upper deck cabins as well as the crew's quarters and pilothouse. It is apparently planned to have open air eating and drinking facilities on a new upper deck, but we trust that her owner will rebuild her in something of a marine manner, else the ship will lose a good deal of the character that has helped to make her so popular.

Although mild weather conditions have allowed a number of vessels to operate on the upper lakes well into January, we should report, for the records, a few "season closers." The last salt water ship to pass through the Seaway was the Greek AKRA RION. She cleared the system on December 18, well past the deadline set earlier for such vessels. The last downbound ship in the Seaway was the Halco tanker HUDSON TRANSPORT which cleared St. Lambert Lock on December 19. The following day, the Seaway was closed with the upbound passage of LAWRENCECLIFFE HALL. The Welland Canal had its longest season ever, staying open until January 8 to facilitate coal shipments. Ice was kept to a minimum at the American Lakehead by warm weather and the Duluth-Superior shipping season did not close until the January 5th departure of the tanker MERCURY. The last ship out of Thunder Bay was the self-unloader TADOUSSAC which cleared for Hamilton on January 3rd with a cargo of 24,085 long tons of pellets. Toronto Harbour closed on January 3rd with the arrival of the tanker CONGAR which subsequently went into winter quarters.

The polar icebreaker EDISTO, brought to the lakes by the U.S.C.G., is already proving herself of value to late operators. In mid-january she was called upon to free several U.S. Steel vessels as ice began to accumulate in the St. Mary's River and the Straits.

A number of operators have followed the lead of Pickands Mather & Co. in applying for approval to set up tax-deferred construction reserve funds. The U.S. Maritime Administration has recently approved applications from the Kinsman Marine Transit Co., the American Steamship Co., Oglebay Norton & Co., the Ford Motor Co., Cleveland Cliffs Steamship Co. and O. D. Schmidt (whoever the latter may be) in addition to the previous approval given to P.M. Applications are pending from Ashland Oil Co. (Cleveland Tankers), Hannah Island Waterways Corp., and the Luedtke Engineering Co. The plan will cover the building of two ships for Kinsman, two for BoCo and the lengthening of CHARLES M. BEEGHLY by P.M. It is thought that Cliffs may be considering the construction of three self-unloading motorships, but plans are not yet firm for this or any other companies involved. Incidentally, it has recently been announced that the two BoCo self-unloaders will be named ROGER M. KYES and CHARLES E. WILSON in honour of two Detroit industrialists who held interest in American Steamship.

The McNamara drydock at Whitby, Ontario, is being enlarged to accommodate the OREFAX which will have a hopper bottom installed prior to taking up her duties on the St. Lawrence with the dredging consortium. HUTCHCLIFFE HALL is currently laid up at Sorel alongside CREEK TRANSPORT, both these ships being destined for the same service. We have a report that there is another vessel in the group at Sorel, this being the ILE D'ORLEANS, a self-unloader registered at St. John, N. B. We suspect that this may be the former BULKARIER but we are awaiting confirmation of this point.

A late report indicates that negotiations are nearing finalization for the purchase of RAYMOND H. REISS from Kinsman Transit by the Cleveland Cliffs Steamship Co. Elsewhere in this issue we recorded the earlier sale of this ship to Kinsman from American Steamship.

It appears that at long last something is being done about re-engining the Lake Ontario sandsucker W. M. EDINGTON. The little steamer is well known for her lack of speed and it has been decided that she will receive a second-hand diesel engine. Presumably the work will be done while EDINGTON is in winter quarters at Hamilton.

Winter Lay-up Listing

Here follows a listing of the vessels spending the winter months in some of the local harbours. We shall include more lists in the March issue if our members will send listings to us,




















































Port Credit


The Death of a Queen

Though not strictly of lake interest, the tragic end of a major passenger liner merits mention in these pages. It was with great shock that the world learned on January 9th of the loss by fire of the former QUEEN ELIZABETH while she lay at anchor undergoing renovation in Hong Kong Harbour,

QUEEN ELIZABETH, the flagship of the Cunard Line during her entire career with that company, was launched on September 28, 1938, at the Clydebank yard of John Brown & Co. She was to have entered the transatlantic service as running mate to QUEEN MARY on April 24, 1940, but the hostilities of the Second War diverted her to troop carrying duties. She was sailed to New York in March of 1940 under cover of the greatest secrecy to prevent any possible attack and the following month she was sent to Sydney, Australia, in convoy with QUEEN MARY to take up her emergency service. Records show that she steamed 492,635 miles during her wartime service and carried 811,324 service personnel.

It was not until October 16, 1946, that the vessel made her first scheduled departure from Southampton in passenger service. The next twenty-two years were largely uneventful and she was involved in no major incidents. Q.E. did not attract quite the following of devoted fans and repeat travellers that had honoured QUEEN MARY and AQUITANIA, whose years of service overlapped her own, but she was just as famous in her own right, being the largest passenger liner ever built. She had a length of 1,031 feet and her gross tonnage was 83,673. Her closest rival for the title was FRANCE, flagship of the C.G.T. (French Line), whose length exceeded that of the QUEEN by four feet, but whose tonnage was considerably less.

The ship was retired by Cunard in 1968 and was sold to a group who took her to Port Everglades, Florida. Renamed ELIZABETH, she served as a floating tourist trap, visitors being charged admittance to see her renowned furnishings. She did not prosper, however, and was soon sold to shipping magnate C.Y. Tung who proceeded to sail her to Hong Kong where she arrived under her own power on July 15, 1971.

Mr. Tung spent much money on refurbishing QUEEN ELIZABETH and she was to operate partially as a seagoing university and partially in the Pacific cruising service. In fact, bookings were already being made for her gala first trip, a figure-eight around the Pacific departing from Los Angeles on April 24th. She was renamed SEAWISE UNIVERSITY, her name being a pun on her owner's initials, and great publicity was gained by the fact that her magnificent public rooms had been retained in their original condition.

But she was never to make her second debut. On January 9, as many workmen aboard prepared for lunch break, the ship was found to be afire and the flames spread so rapidly that little could be done to save her. Fire fighting efforts were discontinued when it appeared that the ship would capsize, but the withdrawal of the streams of water made no difference and, on January 10, her decks a mass of twisted, smoking steel, the QUEEN rolled on her side in the mud of Hong Kong's busy port.

And so the world has lost one more reminder of that delightful era when people had the time and desire to enjoy elegance afloat. While the QUEEN ELIZABETH was with us, it was not too difficult to imagine the style of life aboard such famous floating palaces as AQUITANIA, OLYMPIC, the first MAURITANIA, BERENGARIA, MAJESTIC and ILE DE FRANCE.

Now the QUEEN is gone. There will never be another like her.

An Explanation of Common Tonnage Measurements.

To many of us who take an interest in ships and their operations, tonnage is simply another method of comparing the size of various vessels. It is something that we check by looking in Registers and we know that the description of a ship is incomplete without it, but few of us know what these measurements are and how they are obtained. We present here a few useful definitions, courtesy of Canada Steamship Lines Ltd.'s house organ "C.S.L. News" which ran them a few years ago.

Most of the definitions refer to two particular decks in a ship and we should first explain these two terms. The tank top of a ship is the lowest point in which cargo can be stowed and amounts to the floor of the holds immediately above ballast and fuel storage areas. The tonnage deck is the uppermost complete deck extending the full length and breadth of the ship except in ships having more than two decks, in which case it becomes the second complete deck from below.

UNDERDECK TONNAGE is the total volume of the ship from stem to stern above the tank tops and below the tonnage deck, measured from inside the frames and beams and expressed in units of 100 cubic feet, such units called "tons."

GROSS REGISTER TONNAGE is the underdeck tonnage plus the same measurement applied to all permanently enclosed spaces (with certain minor exceptions) above the tonnage deck, expressed in units of 100 cubic feet. In short, it is the measurement of all enclosed spaces, on the ship. The fitting of as little as one nut and bolt to a "temporary closing appliance" may change an "open" space to an enclosed space which is measurable and similar ships may thus have greatly different gross tonnages.

NET REGISTER TONNAGE is the gross register tonnage less those spaces not considered to be earning spaces, such as crew's quarters, bunkers, machinery space, etc. Net tonnage is not indicative of either cargo capacity or earning ability today since it is still figured using a machinery space allowance to which is added a proportional addition to allow for fuel space which used to vary from trip to trip. This measurement is antiquated in view of technological progress effecting the efficency of modern propulsion machinery.

LIGHTSHIP is the weight of the ship's structure, machinery and permanent fittings expressed in long tons (2240 lbs.).

TOTAL DEADWEIGHT is a measure of the total number of long tons of material that the ship can carry and includes cargo, fuel, crew and effects, stores, fresh and feed water, passengers and baggage. It is usually quoted for a ship at mid-summer draft.

CARGO DEADWEIGHT is the actual weight of revenue-earning cargo that the ship can carry at mid-summer draft expressed in long tons.

LOAD DISPLACEMENT is the weight of the ship and all its contents at load draft expressed in long tons. It amounts to the sum of the lightship plus the total deadweight.

Ship of the Month No. 19

Empress Of India

When we think of the passenger service between Toronto and Port Dalhousie it is very easy to dwell on the famous pair of steamers that closed out the operation two decades ago while not giving due attention to some of the earlier vessels that contributed so much to the development of the service. One of the early steamers that became extremely popular not only on the Port Dalhousie route but also in the general excursion trade from Toronto was the EMPRESS OF INDIA.

In this photo by Wm. Traill believed taken in 1898, her last year on the route, EMPRESS OF INDIA enters Port Dalhousie harbour.The EMPRESS, as she was always known familiarly to local excursionists and as her name was abbreviated on her paddleboxes, was a wooden-hulled, beam-engined passenger steamer built in 1876 at Mill Point, Ontario, by William Jamieson. The ship was actually constructed in the yard of E. W. Rathbun & Company. Incidentally, those who may look for Mill Point on a current map will not find it, as the town has for more than three-quarters of a century been known as Deseronto.

The new steamer measured 170 feet in length and 9 feet in depth. The hull had a beam of 26 feet but she measured 48 feet over the guards. She grossed 579 tons while her net tonnage was 353. Given registry number 72998, she was christened EMPRESS OF INDIA in honour of Queen Victoria who had been given that title, one that would be carried by succeeding reigning British monarchs until the independence of India was granted in 1948.

EMPRESS was built for A. W. Hepburn of Picton, Ontario, who was a very prominent Lake Ontario vessel operator. He put her into operation in 1876 under the management of the Toronto Navigation Co. According to Robertson's "Landmarks of Toronto," she was a "very great favourite with travellers upon Lake Ontario and also with excursionists." Her first year was spent in the general excursion trade out of Toronto. In 1877 her manager was C. J. McCuaig of Toronto and that year she ran on Mondays, Tuesdays and Fridays to the mouth of the Humber River (25¢ per head), on Wednesdays and Saturdays to Oakville (50¢), and on Thursdays to Burlington Beach and Hamilton (also 50¢). In addition, she scheduled a moonlight excursion each Friday evening at 8:00 with a band in attendance.

Over the winter of 1877-78 she was given the first of many rebuilds, being "extensively repaired" at Picton. In 1878 she was back at Toronto and this time Hepburn operated her under the Imperial Navigation Co., a name apparently invented to match the name of the steamer. C. J. McCuaig was again manager. This year, however, her schedule was more ambitious and she operated westwards to Mimico Grove, Oakville, Brant House (downtown Burlington), Burlington Beach and Hamilton. Eastwards from Toronto, she served Whitby, Oshawa and Bowmanville. The following year, 1879, she confined her travels mostly to the Lorne Park service, this route taking her to a location somewhat to the west of the present harbour at Port Credit.

EMPRESS OF INDIA, continued in the excursion trade until 1883 when Hepburn, seeing a profit to be made in operating to the Niagara area, established the Niagara Falls Line. The EMPRESS was placed on this route and was the line's first vessel. It would appear that she crossed to Port Dalhousie and passed up through the first lock of the Welland Canal, discharging her passengers on the upper level. She was to serve this route for many years and could be said to have started the Port Dalhousie service in that she was the first major vessel to operate on a permanent basis. EMPRESS was reboilered in 1884 and received further rebuilds in 1886 and 1891. She was commanded by four well-known Masters during the period 1876 to 1893, these being Captains Collier, Hodgins, VanDusen and G. O'Brien in that order.

In 1888, the sixth year for the EMPRESS OF INDIA on the Niagara route, she was faced with her first serious competition as the Lakeside Navigation Co. placed its propeller LAKESIDE on the route under the command of Capt. Wigle. Over the years, this newcomer proved to be one of the most popular steamers on Lake Ontario. The competition between the two lines became hotter as the years passed and the companies fought for the patronage of the crowds seeking relief from the summer heat of the city.

But if competition was fierce when only two ships were involved, it became deadly in 1892 when the newly-formed St. Catharines, Grimsby & Toronto Navigation Co, placed its new sidewheeler GARDEN CITY on the Port Dalhousie route and, in addition, chartered the LAKESIDE. The very next year, the Niagara Falls Line and the S.G. & T. decided to bury the hatchet and merge their operations since the reckless competition could end only in disaster if it were to continue.

Things continued on a quieter and more prosperous level until the close of the 1898 season at which time Hepburn withdrew the EMPRESS and took her to Picton where she was hauled out at the company's own yard. There she was lengthened and completely rebuilt. She emerged in 1899 with a length of 185.1 feet, the same beam as before, and a depth of 9.7 feet. Her tonnage had risen to 700 Gross and 374 Net as a result of the operation. She was renamed (b) ARGYLE and was given a new registry number, 94926, presumably because she was so extensively altered.

ARGYLE entered service for Hepburn's Lake Ontario Navigation Co. and ran from Toronto to Newcastle, Port Hope, Cobourg and Olcott Beach. During this period she was painted all white (she had earlier worn a black hull) and had much more enclosed cabin space on the main and promenade decks than in her Port Dalhousie days. While the records show that in 1907 she was sold at auction to F. T. Hutchinson's Argyle Steamship Co. Ltd., Toronto, it appears that the Hepburn interests were involved with the ship throughout this period since, on February 13, 1911, the Lake Ontario Navigation Co. sold ARGYLE to the Grimsby Beach & South Shore Navigation Co., Toronto, It is possible that the ship may have been repossessed after the sale to Hutchinson.

In any event, the Grimsby Beach & South Shore commenced operation between Toronto, Grimsby Beach and Jordan Harbour, the latter two places being small ports on the south shore west of Port Dalhousie. In 1913 and perhaps part of 1914, ARGYLE operated as GRIMSBY but this name does not appear to have been officially registered and later in 1914 she was properly renamed (c) FRONTIER. Strangely enough, the 1914 Canadian register shows her owners to be the Argyle Steamship Co. Ltd., Toronto, and confusion arises as to whether this was the same concern that purchased her in 1907 or whether it was a new company or a reorganization of the Grimsby Beach & South Shore Navigation Co.

Whatever the case, she was sold in 1915 to the Peoples Steamboat Co. of Chatham, who intended to operate her in the passenger service between Chatham and Detroit. Service was never commenced, however, and the same year she passed to the Frontier Steamship Co. who, in August 1915, were advertising in the Detroit newspapers that "The Steamer FRONTIER, recently remodelled, beautifully furnished, completely equipped with modern conveniences, is now ready to charter day or moonlight excursions. Prices for remaining season reasonable and satisfaction guaranteed."

This guarantee of good times afloat apparently did little to lure prospective excursionists aboard the veteran sidewheeler and it seems likely that she never actually operated in this service either. While lying idle in the Thames River at Chatham in 1916, she settled to the bottom, her oak planking showing its forty years of wear. She lay on the bottom of the Thames until 1918 when she was raised by the Reid Wrecking Co. Ltd. of Sarnia. FRONTIER was then registered to one Margaret Cook of Windsor who may have had some interest in the previous attempts to operate her out of Chatham. The steamer was towed to Detroit where her superstructure was removed and then the creaking old hull was taken out into Lake St. Clair and laid to rest in the swamp near Windmill Point. There, far from Lake Ontario where she had spent her happiest years, her remains rotted until covered over in a subsequent landfilling operation.


We like to think that the historical information which we present in these pages is as accurate as possible and for this reason we will publish corrections should any of our material be proven to be erroneous,

The tanker CREEK TRANSPORT appeared in the November, 1971, issue as our Ship of the Month No. 16. Unfortunately, the data on the engines which originally powered the steamer was not correct and readers should note that SASKATOON (I) was equipped with triple expansion engines measuring 17 - 28 - 46 x 33. The engines were built in 1910. Steam was provided by two coal-fired Scotch boilers measuring 12' x 11'.

Late Marine News

It seems that each day we learn something more about the St. Lawrence dredging operation. On a recent visit to Whitby, your Editor observed OREFAX in the McNamara yard. The ship is still in Hall Corporation colours but has lost her unloading boom and A-frame in preparation for the conversion to a hopper-bottomed sludge boat. Surprisingly, also in Whitby and moored at the municipal pier was the former east coast passenger and railway ferry PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, This steamer, operated by the C.N.R, until a few years ago, was built in England in 1915 and was of somewhat unorthodox appearance in that she carried four funnels. The 285-foot vessel has now lost her array of stacks and her pilothouse, and is in very poor condition but is apparently being readied for some work in connection with the dredging.

The Toronto Island ferries moved to their new dock at the foot of Yonge Street on January 25. The slips and loading ramps had been lying in readiness for several years but the terminal building was not completed until last month. The vehicle ramp for ONGIARA was moved over from the old dock but the other ferries will have all new facilities including provision for upper deck loading which may be used at some future date. The old terminal will be demolished in preparation for a new building which will contain the offices of the Toronto Harbour Commission.

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Scanner, v. 4, n. 5 (February 1972)

Meetings; The Editor's Notebook; The Death of a Queen; An Explanation of Common Tonnage Measurements.; Ship of the Month No. 19; Correction; Late Marine News