The Maritime History of the Great Lakes
Scanner, v. 5, n. 6 (March 1973)
Scanner (Toronto, ON), Mar 1973

Bascom, John N., Editor
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Meetings; Editor's Notebook; Ship of the Month No. 29; Winter Fleets; Late Marine News
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Mar 1973
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Toronto Marine Historical Society
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Friday, April 6th -8:00 p.m. at the Museum. A Pictorial Visit to Sault Ste. Marie - an illustrated program by Dyke Cobb.

Friday, May 4th - To be announced. See below.

Editor's Notebook

You might call us bears for punishment, but we are going to stick our necks out again and announce that there is a good possibility of a dinner meeting for our May meeting. Due to the disaster of last May, it will be nothing fancy and will probably be held in the Ship Inn at the Museum. Now, here is the point. We are only trying a dinner again because so many of you expressed regrets at the cancelling of the last one. We MUST have your full support and co-operation or else we are out of the dinner business for good. Even if we cannot yet give you complete details on cost, we would ask that each and every person who is interested and who will show, if he says he will drop us a note to let us know. Remember that guests are always welcome, and that includes wives even!

Sharp-eyed readers may have noticed that the February, issue was numbered Volume V -No. 4. We have red faces - it should have been No. 5!

For the first time in several years, our Fleet List this month deals with an American lake company. We hope you like it, but remember that we can always use your suggestions for fleets to do in the future. We have turned to a pair of famous Toronto Island ferries for our Ship of the Month, and you will be seeing a few more old ferries described in these pages in the future, thanks to public demand.

In the New Member Department, a most hearty welcome goes out to Ron Ruck of Hamilton and Charles Tully of Thorold.

Marine News

In our last issue we reported certain developments concerning the idle tanker IMPERIAL WINDSOR which had been sold earlier by Imperial Oil Ltd. to Beauchamp Investments Ltd., Corunna. We can now report further. The name GOLDEN TITAN was never officially registered and was not applied to the bows of the ship and hence photographers may rest at ease. The vessel is now in the process of being sold by Beauchamp to the Algonquin Corporation Ltd., a subsidiary of the Hall Corporation which, as readers will remember, owned the self-unloader ROBERT J. PAISLEY for a short period. The tanker will be renamed CURLEW in time for the opening of navigation and will be operated by Halco in the lake trade. We understand that the steamer is in good condition and that Halco hopes to get at least five seasons of operation from her. Contrary to some earlier suggestions, it appears that she will not be repowered but will retain her old triple expansion machinery. She will operate with a plain black stack to signify the Algonquin ownership. Incidentally, it is interesting to note that CURLEW is named for a wooden tug which served the forerunners of the Hall fleet from 1875 to 1907.

We have known for the last few months that the Hindman Transportation Co. Ltd., of Owen Sound was interested in obtaining another vessel for its lake fleet. It had naturally been assumed by observers that Hindman was interested in one of the idle American ore carriers currently lying at Duluth. It therefore comes as no little surprise to learn that Hindman has actually purchased the 588 foot steamer GEORGE R. FINK from the Hanna Furnace Corporation. The FINK, built in 1923 by the Toledo Shipbuilding Company, did not operate during 1972 and is currently lying at Cleveland. As the FINK is coal-fired, we must assume that her new owners will waste little time in having her converted to oil since bunkers for coalburning steamers are almost non-existent on the Canadian side of the lakes.

Readers will recall our previous references to the repowering of the ferry SAM McBRIDE at Toronto this winter. Now comes the shocker. The old Fairbanks-Morse diesels which have propelled the ferry from one breakdown to another over the past thirty-three years (credit being due, we are sure, to inexperienced and less-than-enthusiastic engineers) are being installed in the veteran sandsucker C.W. CADWELL currently lying at the foot of Bathurst Street here. Although the new installation will undoubtedly free the CADWELL from persecution by residents along the Niagara River and from prosecution by the Ontario Government air pollution inspectors, we find it somewhat ironic that a power plant such as this has been chosen. In addition, no longer will ship fans have the joy of seeing the huge clouds of smoke that always followed the little steamer as she plodded her way around Lake Ontario.

Another sandsucker is in the news, this time the CHARLES DICK. On February 13th, control of her owners, National Sand & Material Co. Ltd., passed to the Erie Sand organization, operators of sandsuckers and self-unloading bulk carriers under the American flag. We are informed that the operations of National Sand will not be changed by the sale and that all will continue as before. However, there appears to be a very distinct possibility that W.M. EDINGTON, operated for several years by another Canadian subsidiary of Erie Sand, will shortly be transferred to the National Sand fleet.

The Canada Steamship Lines Ltd. package freighter ENGLISH RIVER is to be converted by Port Arthur Shipyards for use as a bulk cement carrier. We understand that she will be used by Canada Cement as an addition to their current fleet (CEMENTKARRIER) once the new Canada Cement facility at Bath, Ontario, is in operation, but it is not as yet clear whether she will be sold to Canada Cement or operated for them by C.S.L. The conversion is scheduled to be completed by the autumn of 1973 and the cost will be about $1.5 million.

The hull of WIARTON has now been sunk at the Stelco coal dock in Hamilton and thus joins GROVEDALE and HENRY R. PLATT JR. as part of the dock facing. The WIARTON is in the most easterly position of the three ships and faces generally west with her bow alongside that of the PLATT.

The Reoch self-unloader LEADALE sustained serious damage in a fire which occurred on February 14th while the steamer was laid up in Hamilton with a storage cargo of soybeans. Newspaper accounts of the incident state that the fire was extinguished before the cargo was damaged, but photos taken at the scene show the entire forward end of the vessel enveloped in smoke and flame. It is quite evident that her forecastle as well as the texas and pilothouse are completely gutted and it will be interesting to see whether the Reoch management will consider repairs to be worthwhile in view of the age of the vessel.

Reports are presently circulating to the effect that the U.S.Steel Great Lakes Fleet is giving consideration to lengthening its ore carriers CASON J. CALLAWAY, PHILIP R. CLARKE and ARTHUR M. ANDERSON. The trio of 629-footers was completed in 1952 and, up until the entry into service this year of ROGER BLOUGH, they were the largest ships operated by U.S.Steel.

The Rochester-Monroe County Port Authority has let it be known that two companies have expressed interest in operating a freight "ferry" service from Rochester to Oshawa and Toronto. It is understood that the main cargo would be freight containers and highway trailers which would be saved the long drive around the lake, but one of the companies is also considering carrying passengers and automobiles. Shades of the Ontario Car Ferry Company, whose two ferries ONTARIO NO. 1 and ONTARIO NO. 2 were retired from their Rochester-Cobourg run in 1950. Could it be that the new firm(s) might be casting their eyes in the direction of some of the disused Lake Michigan carferries for the new service? Lots of ferries could be available since the Grand Trunk normally operates only one of its three ships, the Chesapeake & Ohio has extra vessels, and the Ann Arbor is trying as hard as possible to get out of the carferry business altogether.

It is now reported that G.G. POST and ONTADOC, in tow of the tug KORAL, stopped at Gibraltar after their transatlantic voyage and cleared there on October 11th, 1972, en route to Turkey. The POST arrived at Izmir and the ONTADOC at Istanbul later in October. We had originally reported that they had been sold for transportation use of some sort but it now appears that they have been or will be scrapped. POST was sold by Marine Salvage Ltd. to Turkish breakers, while ONTADOC went from Marine Salvage to Cosmos Marine Development Corp. and thence to the Turks.

The conversion of the J.H. HILLMAN JR., recently purchased from the Kinsman Marine Transit Company by the Columbia Transportation Division, Oglebay Norton & Company, to a self-unloader will be handled by the Toledo yard of the American Shipbuilding Company, The steamer will also receive a bowthruster and will be converted to burn oil, with automated boiler controls being fitted. She will receive the same type of unloading equipment as the FRANK PURNELL. The job is expected to be completed in time for the HILLMAN to catch the latter part of the 1973 navigation season.

Meanwhile, Kinsman continues to divest itself of tonnage in compliance with the judgment which we explained in some detail last month. As required, Kinsman has sold the veteran Wilson steamers EDWARD S. KENDRICK and B.F. JONES, the buyer being Marine Salvage Ltd., Port Colborne. The JONES and KENDRICK were both built in 1907 by the West Bay City Shipbuilding Company Ltd. (Hulls 621 and 622 respectively; for the Gilchrist Transportation Company of Cleveland. They had served the Wilson fleet since their acquisition in 1913 upon the dissolution of the Gilchrist interests. The KENDRICK was (a) H.P. McINTOSH (34), while the JONES had formerly sailed as (a GENERAL GARRETSON (35), (b) E.J. KULAS (I) (36), (c) POWHATAN (37), (d) CHARLES A. PAUL (56).

While on the subject of Marine Salvage, we should report that scrapping operations on ALPENA have commenced and by mid-February the forward cabins, forecastle, and A-frame and boom had been removed. HENRY G. DALTON and YVON DUPRE JR. are, for the best part, untouched.

Two foreign shipping lines will not return to lake service in 1973 and this development is all the more lamentable since it means that no longer will ships of the Fjell Line be seen in the lakes. Fjell was the oldest foreign flag service to these parts, having been one of the first such fleets to introduce liner service here, the other company being the Oranje Lijn which gave up the route several years ago. The two operations now closing are Scanlake Lines, a combination of Fjell and another veteran - Swedish Chicago Lines, and Fjell-Fred Olsen Lines. The two operators claim to be victims of the container trade.

It appears that the Detroit River mail service may soon be discontinued. Once again (they did it in 1971 also), the Chicago regional office of the U.S. Postal Service has ordered the Detroit P. O. to discontinue use of the marine station, the J.W. WESTCOTT II, operated by the J. W. Westcott Company. The Post Office, however, has left the door open for continuation of the service if private financing for its costs can be found, such as through the Lake Carriers Association. Such action would have to come quickly, though, since the present contract for delivery by Westcott will expire on June 30th.

Prospects do not appear to be particularly good for the future of the tanker TEXACO-BRAVE. The steamer is currently laid up at Toronto for the winter. We understand that Texaco can charter Simard tankers just as economically as they can operate the BRAVE and in addition, TEXACO-CHIEF has more business than she can handle down the St. Lawrence. If the BRAVE does run this year, it will be out of Montreal and it looks like fans in this area will have seen the last of her when she heads out this spring. She has always been a classy-looking ship, kept in immaculate condition, and we shall be sorry to see her go.

The scow T.H.C. 17, with a load of broken concrete on her deck, disappeared beneath the murky waters of Toronto's Keating Channel one day in January and is still reposing on the bottom. She apparently sprang a leak. There would normally be no reason for us to report an occurrence of this nature, but this particular barge is somewhat interesting in that it is the hull of the former cable-operated AIRPORT FERRY which for about thirty years crossed the Western Gap from the Fleet Street "Flats" to the King George V airport located on Hanlan's Point.

We can now give further details on the departure of MICHIPICOTEN which, as readers will recall, broke adrift from her tug and sank off Anticosti Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence on November 17th, 1972. She had been sold by Providence Shipping Ltd. to Union Pipe and Machinery Ltd. and was then resold to Spanish breakers. She cleared Quebec on November 15th in tow of KORAL.

C.S.L. is spending about $500,000 on its self-unloader STADACONA this winter. The steamer, which originally sailed under the name THUNDER BAY, is getting hull and machinery repairs.

The longest lake shipping season ever recorded was brought to a close on Thursday, February 8th, when the U.S. Steel ore carrier A.H. FERBERT left the Poe Lock at Sault Ste. Marie en route to South Chicago with the last ore cargo of the 1972-73 season. The shipping season at the Soo lasted for 308 days! Once the last few U.S. Steel vessels laid up for the winter (or what is left of it), there remained in operation only a handful of tankers and carferries. On the same day that the FERBERT closed the Soo, the big ROGER BLOUGH arrived at her layup berth in Lorain after having unloaded her last cargo at Conneaut, We understand that the BLOUGH will be the subject of some repair work by American Shipbuilding personnel who will try to remedy some of the problems the vessel encountered this year. Presumably this work will include some effort to avoid further cracking of the bunker tanks, a particularly troublesome problem which bothered the BLOUGH all year. It seems she will also be fitted with a Kort Nozzle instead of her traditional propeller in an effort to end the vibration problem.

Another U.S. Steel vessel, the PHILIP R. CLARKE, will get automated boiler controls this winter while in layup at Milwaukee. The WILLIAM A. IRVIN of the same fleet has been on the drydock at Lorain for shaft repairs which had threatened to keep her idle in 1973. It appears that she will now operate, but her sister GOVERNOR MILLER may spend 1973 at the wall.

We are very pleased to hear that the BoCo self-unloader HENNEPIN has been receiving repairs to the plating on her starboard bow as this pretty well guarantees her another season of operation. It had been the thought of the American Steamship Company to drop HENNEPIN from their fleet at the end of 1972 unless prospects for business in 1973 were exceptionally good. The work on HENNEPIN is being done at Lorain.

Still dealing with work being carried out at Lorain, we can report that the bow of the Bethlehem bulk carrier ARTHUR B. HOMER has now been rebuilt and her new pilothouse fitted, Readers will recall that the HOMER sustained very severe bow damage in a collision with the salty NAVISHIPPER last season.

The last remains of the hull of the former Pelee Island ferry steamer PELEE have now been pulled ashore at Port Stanley, Ontario, where scrapping operations will be completed.

The Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Company, which seems to have been "burning its bridges" as far as its carferry operations are concerned, has taken another step toward reducing the size of its fleet. It has asked for scrap bids on PERE MARQUETTE 21 and PERE MARQUETTE 22, sister ships built in 1924 at Manitowoc. The two were lengthened and repowered at the same port in 1954 and 1953 respectively.

The big Toronto harbour tug QUEEN CITY has been sold by Waterman's Services (Scott) Ltd. to Robert Adams of Royal Oak, Michigan, who will apparently operate her in the charter trade under the Canadian Company Tugs Ltd. It is not known for certain where she will operate. QUEEN CITY has been used only sparingly in the past few years by her former owner who operates a fleet of small tugs in Toronto.

The Roen Steamship Company of Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, has disposed of two more of its vessels. The barge HILDA, formerly used as a pulpwood carrier since being cut down from a carferry, has been sold to the Roen Salvage Company and she will be used for non-transportation purposes in the construction business. More of a surprise is the sale of the MARQUIS ROEN to a New Orleans company who will take her off the lakes, presumably to the Gulf of Mexico. She is to be delivered to her new owners in April. The MARQUIS ROEN is, of course, equipped with both deck cranes and an unloading boom and was built in 1900 as the bulk carrier ROBERT W.E.BUNSEN for the Bessemer Steamship Company.

Ship of the Month No. 29

Mayflower and Primrose

During the one hundred and forty years that have passed since the horseboat SIR JOHN OF THE PENINSULA first crossed Toronto Bay in 1833 to what is now Toronto Island, many ferries have operated on these waters. Possibly two of the most famous and popular ferries on the route have been the double-ended sidewheelers MAYFLOWER (Can. 94987) and PRIMROSE (Can. 94990). Sister ships, they were built for the Toronto Ferry Company in 1890 by the Doty Engine Company from the designs of W. E. Redway.

MAYFLOWER is shown leaving Hanlan's Point in this early photo.Note the original pilothouses, fancy paddleboxes, and decorative paintwork.The Toronto Ferry Company Ltd. was registered as a joint stock company on February 27th, 1890, capitalized at $250,000. One of the main purposes of the new company was to take over the Doty Ferry Company. Doty Brothers had purchased the ferry fleet of Capt. John Turner on April 9th, 1887 for just $14,600.

The President of the new Toronto Ferry Company Ltd. was Mr. E. B. Osler and William Hendrie was Vice-President. The company's office and board room were located at 18 King Street West, Toronto. The Toronto Evening Telegram commented, "There is no better evidence of how well they do what they undertake to do than the fact that no one ever hears anything about them or their affairs."

MAYFLOWER and PRIMROSE were the first vessels built for the Toronto Ferry Company, although actually the principals of the firm let the contract for the construction of the new ferries a full month before incorporation took place. MAYFLOWER was launched May 24, 1890 and was christened by Miss Jennie Doty. PRIMROSE followed her sister into the waters of Toronto Bay on June 28, 1890 under the sponsorship of Miss Mary Williams who was the daughter of the Commodore of the Toronto Ferry Company's fleet. Many of the Toronto ferries were named for common flowers and the new steamers were no exception to this practice which lasted up until the building of SHAMROCK (II) in 1935.

This August 1938 photo by J. H. Bascom shows PRIMROSE after rebuilding. She is Citybound from Hanlan's Point in her last month of service.The ferries cost $33,000 each and their dimensions were identical: length 140.2', beam inside the guards 28.2', and depth 6.8'. Tonnage was 189 Gross, 119 Net. The hulls were of steel up to the main deck while the upperworks were of wood. Power was supplied by diagonal direct acting 29 H.P. engines by Doty and boilers were coal-fired. Each ferry was licensed to carry 900 passengers.

The Toronto Evening Telegram, in describing the new wonders of Toronto Bay, said "Both these steamers are lighted throughout by electricity, and when loaded with pleasure seekers at night, present a gay and unique appearance. They are invariably considered the finest ferry steamers to be found between Hudson's Bay and the Gulf of Mexico." Compared with the other Island ferries of their day, MAYFLOWER and PRIMROSE were far superior. They were equipped originally with colorful octagonal "bird cage" pilothouses which were so popular in the Nineties. The windows on the main deck and in the pilothouses were in two sections, the large lower pane being of clear glass while the small upper section was fitted with stained glass. The paddleboxes were elaborately decorated and the painters ran wild in their treatment of lettering and window frames.

As originally built, the ferries were boarded via side gangways on the main deck, although they appear to have been planned with the idea of end loading in mind. With the opening of the new ferry terminal at the foot of Bay Street in July 1906, gangways were fitted at both ends. In addition , to take care of the large volume of passenger traffic as quickly as possible, an upper platform and gangway leading from the upper deck to the second storey of the terminal building was developed. This upper deck loading system must have had its drawbacks and it did not last long. When the Bay Street terminal was badly damaged by fire in 1918, the structure was rebuilt without facilities for upper deck gangways.

After approximately twenty-five years of service, MAYFLOWER and PRIMROSE were updated by the removal of the original octagonal pilothouses. These were replaced by square box-like structures with three large windows across the front and containing an officers' cabin as well as the wheelhouse, Also it was about this time that the stained glass upper window sections were reglazed with clear glass and square paddleboxes replaced the curved and ornate original housings,

MAYFLOWER seems to have been involved in very few accidents during her forty-eight years of service as a ferry, but PRIMROSE was not so lucky. On August 13th, 1916, PRIMROSE was in collision with the Toronto-Hamilton passenger steamer TURBINIA. While approaching the Bay Street terminal on the evening of that day, she was struck by TURBINIA which was proceeding from her Toronto dock to the coaling wharf in preparation for the next day's run. The collision was investigated by the Dominion Wreck Commissioner, Capt. L. A. Demers, who was noted for his highly critical assessments and severe judgments. Capt. B. W. Bongard of the TURBINIA had his license suspended for one year as he was found "in default for not ordering any reduction in speed when he found his one-whistle passing signal went unanswered by PRIMROSE." Capt. Alex Brown of PRIMROSE drew Capt. Demers' caustic ruling that he was "incompetent as a master because he seemed to have his entire thought centred on making the dock and maintaining his schedule." His master's license was permanently revoked although it was recommended that he be given a mate's license on a freight boat after one year.

MAYFLOWER and PRIMROSE were in collision with each other at 10:20 p.m. on August 4, 1924, that day being a Monday holiday known in the city as Civic Holiday. Operating on the Centre Island route in foggy weather, MAYFLOWER struck her sister on the paddlebox, disabling PRIMROSE'S wheel. MAYFLOWER took the 150 passengers from the other steamer to the mainland terminal and then returned to the scene, towing her sister back to the dock. Once again Capt. Demers investigated, finding both masters to have been in error.

Back on August 6th, 1907, MAYFLOWER very nearly became a fire casualty. At 1:55 a.m. that summer day, the Toronto Fire Dept. received a call to the effect that the old ferry SHAMROCK (I) was on fire in the west slip at the Bay Street ferry docks. SHAMROCK had been out of service since 1905 and by the time firemen arrived at the scene, she was ablaze from stem to stern. In addition, the flames had spread to the new ferry dock and terminal building which had only been completed in July 1906. MAYFLOWER was moored close to SHAMROCK and would have been destroyed if the TURBINIA, which had arrived in port only one hour earlier, had not pulled MAYFLOWER away from her dock and extinguished the smouldering fires in her woodwork.

The Toronto Ferry Company Ltd. was formally taken over by the City of Toronto on November 1st, 1926, with the payment of $337,500 to Lawrence Solman and the Ferry Company for the T.F. Co.'s property, real and floating. However, Mr. Solman remained as operator until February 21st, 1927 on which date the City of Toronto handed over operation of the ferries and the amusement park at Hanlan's Point to the Toronto Transportation Commission. This latter organization had been formed in 1921 to take over the city's public transit system which had been operated by the privately owned Toronto Railway Company. Thus from 1927 the ferries operated under the same management as the street railways.

MAYFLOWER and PRIMROSE continued their faithful service on Toronto Bay until they were retired from service on August 30th, 1938, their condition having deteriorated appreciably. During the last few years, PRIMROSE had suffered upper deck problems and in the makeshift repair process new seating accommodations were installed. The old benches which had been placed around the rail (not too handily situated for anyone aspiring to look out over the side of the ship) were removed and replaced by small double-sided benches which were later transferred to the diesel SAM McBRIDE which was built in 1939 to replace the two aging sisters. They are still in use on this vessel.

The last few weeks of the summer of 1938 were difficult for MAYFLOWER. She was forced to operate as a "single-ender" because her main deck had become loosened from the hull at one end as a result of a severe bump when docking! Presumably management did not go out of its way to bring this condition to the attention of the steamship inspectors.

Late in 1938, both veteran ferries were sold to the Russell Construction Company Ltd, of Toronto for $1500. During the following winter they were stripped to the main deck at Russell's docks on Toronto's Keating Channel and after the removal of upperworks, boilers and engines, the two hulls were redecked for use as barges. MAYFLOWER became R.C.C. 26 while PRIMROSE was renamed R.C.C. 25. No doubt they proved useful since they were seen in these parts for over a decade carrying various loads, but they were certainly most unusual in appearance due to their sharp ends and narrow beam. Both hulls were finally scrapped in the late 1950's at a time when the last of the big sidewheel ferries, BLUEBELL and TRILLIUM, were also sent into retirement. Back in 1938, one of the Toronto daily newspapers had published photos of the then still operating MAYFLOWER and PRIMROSE under the headline "Flowers of the Bay Fade and Die," a prophecy that was to prove only too true.

Winter Fleets

With this issue, we continue our listing of the vessels wintering at some of our lake ports.

Port McNicoll












Port Credit




Port Colborne

To previous listing add CHICAGO TRIBUNE

Quebec City








Late Marine News

We have learned that Hulls 901 and 902 at AmShip in Lorain, will be named WILLIAM R. ROESCH (for the President of Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp.) and PAUL THAYER (for the Chairman of the Board of L.T.V. Industries). The self-unloaders will be operated by the Kinsman Marine Transit Company.

Jones And Laughlin Steel Corporation (The Interstate Steamship Co.)

A Fleet List

The camera of A. E. Young cuaght BALTIC, an early Jones & Laughlin unit, in Little Rapids Cut during 1920.The Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation had been in business for some fifty years before becoming vessel owners in 1906 with the building of the B. F. JONES and JAMES LAUGHLIN. These ships were named in honour of the founding partners of the firm and would remain with its shipping operation until the cessation of activities forty-three years later. Ownership of the vessels was held by a subsidiary company, the Interstate Steamship Company, but the actual management of the fleet was in the hands of W. H. Becker, a prominent Cleveland vessel owner and operator. Upon Mr. Becker's death in 1920, Interstate assumed control of its own ships and appointed the well-known Capt. R. W. England as Marine Manager. He was succeeded in the 1940's by Paul L. Tietjen.

On May 24th, 1949, the Interstate Steamship Company was absorbed into the parent Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation. "J. & L. " continued as vessel owners until November 15th, 1952, when they sold their remaining four steamers to the Wilson Transit Company, Cleveland. Since that time, their iron ore has been hauled by vessels of other American lake fleets.

Prior to 1921, Interstate ships were painted green with white forecastles and cabins. From 1921 to 1947, black hulls prevailed. In 1947, hulls were painted a dark green with "Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation" in bright yellow on the sides. In addition, the old funnel insignia of a white diamond with "J & L" on it gave way to a square insignia outlined in bright yellow with

J & L


on it in bright yellow paint. When Interstate was absorbed into the parent company in 1949, the hulls once again became black.

A. G. BROWER (20), (b) SARGENT (22), (c) C. B. NIENABER (23), (d) S B. WAY (I) (31), (e) HOWARD P. EELLS JR. (34), (f) D. E. CALLENDER (II). (37), g) E. G. MATHIOTT (II). U.S. 107738. Steel bulk carrier built 1902 at Chicago Shipbuilding Co., Hull 51. 352.9' x 48.2' x 24.0'. Gross 3582, Net 2778. Built for the United States Transportation Co., Cleveland. Absorbed 1911 into the Great Lakes Steamship Co., Ltd., Cleveland. Sold December 22, 1915, to the Interstate Steamship Co. (J & L) and operated for Interstate through 1921. Sold November 26, 1921 to Wm. D. Becker and placed under the Becker Steamship Co, Cleveland, April 1, 1922. Transferred in 1922 to the Morrow Steamship Co. and operated by Cleveland-Cliffs. Transferred August 31, 1925, to the Valley Camp Steamship Co., Cleveland. Rebuilt 1927 as a scraper-type self-unloader at Sturgeon Bay, Wis., by the L. D. Smith Dock Co. Gross 3606, Net 3055. Transferred March 25, 1936 to the Columbia Transportation Co. (Oglebay Norton & Co.), Cleveland. Sold November 1960 to Marine Salvage Ltd., Port Colborne. Scrapped 1961 at Hamilton by the Steel Company of Canada Ltd.

W. W. BROWN (20), (b) BALTIC (22), (c) JOHN W. AILES (26), (d) HARRY T. EWIG. U.S. 81803. Steel bulk carrier built 1902 at Chicago by the Chicago Shipbuilding Co., Hull 52. 352.9' x 48.2' x 24.0'. Gross 3582, Net 2778. Built for the United States Transportation Co., Cleveland, and absorbed 1911 into the Great Lakes Steamship Co. Inc., Cleveland. Sold December 22, 1915, to the Interstate Steamship Co. (J & L) and operated for Interstate through 1920. Sold November 26, 1921, to Wm. D. Becker and placed in the Becker Steamship Co., Cleveland, April 1, 1922. Transferred in 1922 to the Valley Camp Steamship Co., Cleveland. Rebuilt 1926. Transferred 1935 to the Columbia Transportation Co. (Oglebay Norton & Co.), Cleveland. Converted to a craneship 1939. Gross 3562, Net 2963. Sold 1963 to the Roen Salvage Co., Sturgeon Bay, Wis., and resold to the Bultema Bock & Dredge Co. Sold 1964 to Asher Marine Rental Co. Deck cranes removed and cut into two 170' gravel barges. Both barges sank in a violent gale October 29, 1965, near Frankfort, Michigan, while in tow of tug ROY R. LOVE.

S.S. CURRY (20), (b) ELMORE (22), (c) P.W.SHERMAN, (d) E.G. MATHIOTT (l). U.S. 116558. Steel bulk carrier built 1893 at West Bay City by F. W. Wheeler & Co. 360.0' x 45.0' x 20.8'. Gross 3260, Net 2608. Wheelhouse set back of hatch No. 1 and boilers and engines carried amidships. Built for Henry A. Hawgood and operated by the Hawgood and Avery Transit Co., Cleveland. Rebuilt 1905 by American Shipbuilding Co., Cleveland, with pilothouse on forecastle and machinery aft. Also lengthened to 432.0'. Gross 3931, Net 2901. Sold December 18, 1915, for $165,000 to the Interstate Steamship Co. (J & L) and operated for Interstate through 1921. Sold 1922 to the Becker Steamship Co. (Wm. D. Becker), Cleveland, and transferred the same year to the Valley Camp Steamship Co., Cleveland. Scrapped 1934 at a Lake Erie port.

B.F. JONES (I), U.S. 202839. Steel bulk carrier built 1906 at Ecorse, Michigan, by the Great Lakes Engineering Works, Hull 15. 538.4' x 56.2' x 27.3'. Gross 6941, Net 5744. Launched December 31,1905. Built for the Interstate Steamship Co. (J & L). Absorbed into Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. May 24, 1949. Sold November 15, 1952, to the Wilson Transit Co., Cleveland, While upbound light in the St. Mary's River on August 21, 1955, collided head-on in fog with CASON J. CALLAWAY above Lime Island. JONES declared constructive total loss and sold 1955 to the Fraser-Nelson Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Superior, Wis. Pilothouse, hatches and hatchlifter placed on SPARKMAN D. FOSTER at Superior during winter 1955-56. Funnel placed on LYMAN C. SMITH. Hull scrapped except for small section converted to shipyard crane lighter S.S.C. -1.

WILLIS L. KING (53), (b) C.L.AUSTIN. U.S. 208397. Steel bulk carrier built 1911 at Ecorse, Michigan, by the Great Lakes Engineering Works, Hull 79. 588.3' x 58.2' x 33.2'. Gross 7802, Net 6497. Built for the Interstate Steamship Co. (J & L). On August 20, 1920, rammed and sank SUPERIOR CITY in fog on Lake Superior. SUPERIOR CITY sank with a loss of 29 lives. KING absorbed into Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. May 24, 1949. Sold November 15, 1952, to the Wilson Transit Co.,

Cleveland. Transferred 1957 to the Wilson Marine Transit Co, Sold 1972 to the Kinsman Marine Transit Co., Cleveland. Still in service.

JAMES LAUGHLIN (65), (b) HELEN EVANS. U.S. 203056. Can. 306343. Steel bulk carrier built 190.6 at Ecorse, Michigan, by the Great lakes Engineering Works, Hull 16. 538.4' x 56.2' x 27.3'. Gross 6941, Net 5744. Built for the Interstate Steamship Co. (J & L). Absorbed into the Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. May 24, 1949. Sold November 15, 1952, to the Wilson Transit Co., Cleveland, and transferred 1957 to the Wilson Marine Transit Co. Sold 1964 to the Hindman Transportation Co. Ltd., Owen Sound. Still in service.

P. P. MILLER (20), (b) COLLIER (22), (c) JOHN McCARTNEY KENNEDY (37), (d) R. E. MOODY. U.S. 200346. Steel bulk carrier built 1903 at Buffalo by the Buffalo Shipbuilding Co., Hull 205. 361.5' x 48.6' x 23.9'. Gross 3845, Net 2858. Built for the Miller Steamship Co. (J. E. Ball). Sold 1911 to O.G. and D.H. Donaldson, Buffalo. Sold 1915 to the Miller Steamship Co. (Brown & Co., Managers). Sold December 21, 1915, to the Interstate Steamship Co. (J & L) and operated for Interstate through 1920. Sold 1922 to the Becker Steamship Co. (Wm. D. Becker), Cleveland, and transferred the same year to the Valley Camp Steamship Co., Cleveland, Rebuilt as a scrapper-tunnel self-unloader 1926 at Sturgeon Bay, Wis., by the L. D. Smith Dock Co. Gross 3663, Net 3048. Absorbed March 25, 1936 into the Columbia Transportation Co. (Oglebay Norton & Co), Cleveland. Sold October 1958, to the Marine Iron & Shipbuilding Co., Duluth and arrived at Duluth under own steam November 12, 1958. Sold 1959 to the Fraser-Nelson Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. and scrapped at Superior, Wis., 1959-60.

WILLIAM C. MORELAND (16),(b) SIR TREVOR DAWSON (20),(c) CHARLES L. HUTCHINSON (II) (51), (d) GENE C. HUTCHINSON (63),(c) PARKDALE (II). U.S. 207851, U.S. 214499, Can. 316355. Steel bulk carrier built 1910 at Lorain by the American Shipbuilding Co., Hull 387. 580.0' x 58.0' x 32.0'. Launched July 27, 1910. Built for the Interstate Steamship Co. (J & L). While on only fifth trip, stranded October 18,1910, on Saw Tooth Reef, Lake Superior, Broke in three sections and abandoned to underwriters. Bow and midsection eventually slid into deep water and were lost but stern section floated August 8, 1911, by Capt. James Reid of Sarnia. Stern taken to Portage, Mich., September 1911 to Port Huron and Point Edward September 1912, to Ecorse September 1912, to Windsor November 1912, to Port Huron October 1913, Sold 1915 to Canada Steamship Lines Ltd., Montreal, and taken May 1916 to American Shipbuilding Co., Superior, Wis., where joined to a new bow section built there as Hull 524. Rebuilt to same dimensions as before. Gross 7215, Net 5505, Given new U.S. registry number. Entered service November 1916 for the American Interlake Co., a U. S. subsidiary of C.S.L. Sold December 23, 1920, to the Pioneer Steamship Co. (Hutchinson & Co., Manager), Cleveland. Sold 1962 to Redwood Enterprises Ltd. (Reoch) and registered in Hamilton, Bermuda. Transferred to Canadian registry (Hamilton, Ontario) 1967. Retired 1968. Sold to

Marine Salvage Ltd., Port Colborne 1970, and resold to Spanish breakers. Cleared Quebec May 12, 1970 in tow, arriving at Cartagena, Spain, June 8, 1970. Subsequently scrapped. (For further information on this ship, see Ship of the Month No. 4, December 1969, Vol. II, No. 3).

THOMAS WALTERS (53), (b) FRANK R. DENTON. U.S, 208561. Steel bulk carrier built 1911, at Lorain by the American Shipbuilding Co., Hull 390. 580.0' x 58.2' x 27.7'. Gross 7763, Net 6l53. Built for the Interstate Steamship Co. (J & L) as a replacement for the lost WILLIAM C. MORELAND. Absorbed into the Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp., May 24, 1949. Sold November 15, 1952, to the Wilson Transit Co., Cleveland, and transferred 1957 to the Wilson Marine Transit Co. Sold 1972 to the Kinsman Marine Transit Co., Cleveland. Still in service.

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Scanner, v. 5, n. 6 (March 1973)

Meetings; Editor's Notebook; Ship of the Month No. 29; Winter Fleets; Late Marine News