The Maritime History of the Great Lakes
Scanner, v. 8, n. 4 (January 1976)
Publication:
Scanner (Toronto, ON), Jan 1976


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Bascom, John N., Editor
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Website
Description:
Meetings; The Editor's Notebook; A Famous Trio comes to the Lakes; Additional Marine News
Date of Publication:
Jan 1976
Language of Item:
English
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Protected by copyright: Uses other than research or private study require the permission of the rights holder(s). Responsibility for obtaining permissions and for any use rests exclusively with the user.
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Toronto Marine Historical Society
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Meetings

Friday, February 6 - 8:00 p.m. at the Museum. Open Slide Night. Topic will be ships built prior to 1930 and members are invited to bring a few slides each for showing.

Friday, March 5 - 8:00 p.m. at the Museum. Speaker will be Alan Howard and his subject will be "Recollections of Toronto Bay: Personal Reminiscences of the Toronto Waterfront over a 40-year Period, 1918-1959".

The Editor's Notebook

We are now into a brand new year and look forward to receiving the same support from our members and correspondents that we were given in 1975. Through the winter months we will feature layup listings for as many of the major ports as possible and we will appreciate hearing from those who may be able to supply such information.

As you are all aware, our costs in the production of this publication have increased considerably in recent years and we can look forward to another bombshell very soon when our Postmaster General (for non-existent service) introduces new postal rates. One way of relieving the pressure this puts on the treasury is to increase our membership. With this in mind, why not show "Scanner" to some of your friends who do not now receive it? Who knows, they might well like to join and at the rate of $10 per annum membership in T.M.H.S. is a great bargain.

Our special feature this issue is a continuation of the story of the first three Clyde-built C.P.R. lake steamers. We told of the lives of these ships in an earlier issue and we now recount how they made the trip into the lakes. This is the most exhaustive history ever written about these ships and we hope that you enjoy it. There will be more to come in future issues.

Marine News

SAMUEL MATHER (V) will sail in 1976 as JOAN M. McCULLOUGH for the Soo River Company. Photo by J. H. Bascom August 15, 1973, in Little Rapids Cut.In our December issue we mentioned that the Interlake Steamship Company's bulk carrier SAMUEL MATHER (V) had been sold to the Soo River Company (Robert Pierson Holdings Ltd.) and would operate in 1976 under the name JOAN M. McCULLOUGH. The MATHER was due to leave Ashtabula December 18 in tow of the G-tug OHIO but she did not get away until the following day, arriving at Port Colborne on December 20th. She has been laid up along the West Street wharf and will spend the winter there, during which time she will be converted to burn oil fuel. It appears that she will receive the oil burners from the now-retired Reoch self-unloader AVONDALE (II). Last month we also mentioned the possibility that two other vessels would also make the change to the Soo River Company but at that time we could not reveal any further information. However, we can now confirm that the second Pierson purchase is THOMAS E. MILLSOP, formerly a unit of the fleet of the National Steel Corporation. The MILLSOP, second vessel of that name to sail the lakes, is a 589-footer built in 1925 by the Great Lakes Engineering Works at River Rouge, Michigan. Built for the Wilson Transit Company as (a) WILLIAM C. ATWATER, she later served Wilson as (b) E. J. KULAS (II) and (c) BEN MOREELL (I). She joined the Hanna fleet in 1955 at which time she was given her present name. The MILLSOP arrived at Port Colborne under her own power on December 18th and will winter alongside the West Street wharf. When she enters service for her new owners in 1976 it will be with the name (e) E. J. NEWBERRY.

It gives us a bit of a laugh to announce the details of the third acquisition. Back last summer when we forecast the sale of A. T. LAWSON to the Soo River Company we were greeted with general disbelief. But despite the delay in the completion of the deal, the sale was closed on the morning of December 17th. That night the LAWSON cleared Buffalo for Toledo where she loaded a cargo of soya beans. She arrived at Hamilton on December 21 and will winter there with her storage cargo. We believe that she will be renamed (d) GEORGE G. HENDERSON in honour of the marine superintendent of Westdale Shipping Ltd. The LAWSON is 580.8 feet in length and was built in 1909 by the Great Lakes Engineering Works at Ecorse for the Shenango Furnace Company as (a) SHENANGO (I). She was sold in 1958 to the American Steamship Company, Buffalo, and was renamed (b) B. W. DRUCKENMILLER. She took on her present name in 1964 at which time she was sold to the Wilson Marine Transit Company. She passed to Kinsman in 1972 and to S & E Shipping Corp. in 1974.

Meanwhile, the sale of SAMUEL MATHER (V) leaves the Interlake Steamship Company without a ship named in honour of Mather, one of the founders of Pickands Mather and Company. This situation will be remedied in 1976 when the steamer FRANK ARMSTRONG will become (c) SAMUEL MATHER (VI). The ARMSTRONG will spend the winter at Buffalo with storage grain for the Pillsbury mill. She was built in 1943 by the Great Lakes Engineering Works at Ashtabula (Hull 522) and was the first of a series of ten L6-S-B1 bulk carriers built for the U.S. Maritime Commission by G.L.E.W. at Ashtabula and River Rouge. She entered service as (a) PILOT KNOB (I) on June 3, 1943 and ran under charter to Interlake. Her entry into service was hardly auspicious as on her maiden voyage she collided with the C.S.L. bulker GODERICH in the St. Mary's River and severely damaged her bow. The ARMSTRONG became the property of Interlake in 1944 when she was exchanged for several overage vessels from the fleet. She has operated for Interlake ever since.

The Bethlehem Steel Corporation's steamer ARTHUR B. HOMER (near sister to the lost EDMUND FITZGERALD) re-entered service in Mid-December after undergoing lengthening at Fraser Shipyards, Superior, Wisconsin. A new midbody 96 feet in length was inserted aft of hatch number eleven and the addition has given the vessel an overall length of 826 feet.

Observers can hardly have missed noticing the number of vessels that have been lengthened at lake shipyards over the past few years. The latest in the series of such operations is the U.S. Steel self-unloader JOHN G. MUNSON which is getting the treatment at Superior this winter. Although several other lengthenings have been rumoured, the next to be announced is to involve the Cleveland-Cliffs Steamship Company's bulk carrier WALTER A. STERLING which will go to the Lorain yard of the American Shipbuilding Company in May 1976 for the insertion of a 96-foot midbody. At present the STERLING measures 716.5 feet in length (730 overall). She was originally a tanker built by Bethlehem at Sparrows Point in 1942 and she spent her early years as CHIWAWA, although it appears (depending upon which source you read) that she started life as either MOBILOIL or SAMOSET. She was lengthened and converted to a straight-deck lake bulk carrier in 1961.

The fleet of canal motorships operated by N.M. Paterson and Sons Ltd., Thunder Bay, has been much depleted recently. LACHINEDOC and CALGADOC were both sold earlier in 1975 and this left TROISDOC as the only operating unit. Then SARNIADOC was fitted out to carry corn from Wallaceburg to Cardinal and she operated through the autumn even though she is not in the best of condition. We now hear that she too will be leaving the lakes, probably in April 1976, and we presume that she has been sold to off-lakes owners already even though we do not know who these owners may be. We have heard nothing about a sale for TROISDOC and it is to be hoped that she will be retained, for if the company disposes of her it will not be able to run to Wallaceburg at all unless the federal government chips in with funds to dredge the Snye River, an operation which would be required to get even the diminutive MONDOC or LAWRENDOC upstream.

Now that ENGLISH RIVER has established herself on the run between Bath and Toronto carrying cement for Canada Cement Lafarge, the rumours are flying to the effect that C.S.L. may convert the sistership FRENCH RIVER to a bulk cement carrier. FRENCH RIVER has lain idle at Hamilton for several years with the exception of a very short period during the summer of 1975 when she came out to make one round trip up the lakes. If she should be converted, it would be to replace one of two vessels, either METIS or CEMENTKARRIER, and it doesn't take too much imagination to figure out which one it would likely be. Nothing by way of a formal announcement has yet been made so we shall have to be patient and await developments.

Names have been announced for the two tankers being built for Gulf Oil Canada Ltd. by Marine Industries Ltd. at Sorel, Quebec. Hulls 434 and 435, respectively, will be christened GULF GATINEAU and GULF MACKENZIE.

The weather was terrible for photography, but the Editor's camera caught AVONDALE backing past PETER ROBERTSON into the Old Canal at Humberstone, November 30, 1975, on her final voyage.Last issue we commented upon the retirement of the Reoch self-unloader AVONDALE. Unfortunately, a small error seems to have crept into our account in that we stated that, after having been stripped in Port Colborne harbour, the vessel was moved down to a lay-up berth on the Old Canal on November 29. Of course, it was actually on Sunday, November 30 that this last journey was taken by the old steamer. And Ye Ed should know - he stood for several hours in the pouring rain and blustering winds watching her make her way down to her final resting place!

We earlier reported on the possibility that the veteran Kinsman steamer HARRY L. ALLEN would be given her inspection and survey this fall, thus prolonging her active life. It is with pleasure that we can advise that the ship was on the dock at Superior in early December and apparently passed inspection with flying colours. It seems that her owners felt it was cheaper for them to dock the ALLEN than to put in hand the repairs necessary to reactivate CHICAGO TRADER, despite the fact that this latter vessel is still in class.

Prior to Christmas, Upper Lakes Shipping's stemwinder WHEAT KING went to Port Weller and is now ensconced in the drydock where she will be lengthened over the winter months. The job will also include the fitting of a bowthruster and a controllable pitch propellor.

Meanwhile, Port Weller Dry Docks Ltd. has won a $39 million contract to build an ice-breaking bulk carrier specially designed for service to the arctic regions. The vessel, not surprisingly to be christened ARCTIC, will be owned by a new firm in which the Canadian federal government will hold a 51% interest. The remaining shares of the company (as yet unidentified by name) will be held by Federal Commerce and Navigation Ltd., Canada Steamship Lines Ltd., and Leitch Transports Ltd. No details of the dimensions of the vessel have yet been announced. The yard hopes that work on the ship will begin next summer once the new Upper Lakes Shipping self-unloader is off the graving dock shelf.

As time passes, more and more details come to light concerning the loss of the Columbia steamer EDMUND FITZGERALD on Lake Superior on November 10, 1975. The vessel cleared Silver Bay, Minnesota, at 1:30 p.m. on Sunday, November 9th with a cargo of 26,216 tons of taconite pellets for delivery to the Ecorse plant of the Great Lakes Steel Company. On her trip down Lake Superior, during which she encountered the storm that was to prove her undoing, she was accompanied by the U.S. Steel bulk carrier ARTHUR M. ANDERSON under the command of Capt. J. Cooper. The two ships fought their way down the storm-tossed lake through Sunday night and on Monday it appears that both skippers decided to take their vessels to shelter behind Caribou Island, a small rocky island located about 25 miles south of the much larger Michipicoten Island. The two ships stayed in the shelter of Caribou during the mid-day hours of Monday and then a decision was made to continue down the lake in the hope of reaching the full shelter of Whitefish Bay. Caribou is surrounded by shoal water with varying depths over a rocky bottom and with the large seas running on the lake, there would have been a great fluctuation from moment to moment in the depth of available water at any given spot. In the heavy seas, could the FITZGERALD have struck the shoal, doing damage to her hull through which water may have entered? From Caribou Island it was a trip of about forty miles to the spot where the FITZGERALD foundered off Coppermine Point, a location described precisely as 47 degrees, 9 minutes, 4 seconds North; 85 degrees, 16 minutes West.

At the time of the accident the press was making much of a statement allegedly made by Capt. McSorley of the FITZGERALD just prior to the sinking, a statement concerning the vessel making water as a result of some unspecified damage. It was touted in the papers that the ship's hatches must have become uncovered, but to those who know the size and weight of single-piece steel hatch covers and the way they are dogged down to the coamings, this sort of speculation seems ludicrous. The spot on the lake at which the disaster occurred is just about where a downbound vessel would alter course to a more southerly heading to take her into Whitefish Bay. Such a manoeuvre in a wind of the direction and velocity that was blowing on the evening of November 10 would put a vessel almost broadside to the heavy seas and right in the trough of the waves, a most uncomfortable position at the best of times. Whether the ship had damaged herself at Caribou or not, this would have been the moment at which the greatest strain would have been placed on the vessel's fabric. It is not beyond the realm of possibility that at this point she simply cracked and broke apart. The cargo hold was divided into three compartments, but with the ship opened up to seas of the size that were running it would not take long for the broken sections to be overwhelmed.

In the meantime, efforts are being made to obtain diving equipment suitable to permit a descent into the 525-foot depths where the ship is lying for the purpose of the positive identification of the wreck and the possible recovery of items from the ship together with the bodies of the crew, none of her men having yet come ashore. At the same time, the inquiry into the circumstances of the sinking is continuing amid allegations of everything from unseaworthiness of the ship, to the suitability of the safety equipment, to the reasons why the U.S. Coast Guard was unable to rescue any of the crew. It seems a particularly bitter result of such an unfortunate accident, but we suppose that it is to be expected.

Efforts to return the former Chicago, Duluth and Georgian Bay Transit Company passenger steamer SOUTH AMERICAN to the Great Lakes continue, but each time we hear about the vessel it seems that a new promoter is pushing the restoration project. Plans to bring the ship to Holland, Michigan, and to Mackinac Island both failed during 1975 and late in the year it was announced that a Duluth-based group was making a strong effort to take the old ship to that port for use as a hotel-restaurant-nightclub centre in a waterfront redevelopment complex. This group seems to have sounder backing than have earlier such concerns and it would appear that they have a reasonable chance of bringing the SOUTH AMERICAN back. Meanwhile the steamer herself, mouldering away in a Camden scrapyard, is in little danger of being scrapped before the project can get underway. The firm that owns the steamer, Ships Inc., is presently in the throes of bankruptcy proceedings.

This was the scene at Toronto's Sunnyside beach on December 27, 1975 as tugs LAC COMO, WILLIAM REST, G.W. ROGERS and BAGOTVILLE tried to free the grounded GEORGE M. CARL. Photo by J. H. Bascom.Christmas Day 1975 may have been a very happy day for most of us, but we bet that the crew of the Scott Misener Steamships Ltd. bulk carrier GEORGE M. CARL wish that they had been anywhere else but aboard their ship that day. The CARL, under the command of Capt. Morey Armstrong, was en route from Toledo to Toronto with a storage cargo of soya beans consigned to Victory Mills. As the ship neared Toronto, she encountered a snowsquall and somehow lost her way. For, you see, instead of coming in to the fairway buoy at the Western Gap and making a starboard turn to come to the harbour entrance, she proceeded straight ahead and wound up in Humber Bay, a good three miles west of where she should have been. Shortly after 5:00 p.m., she came to a sudden stop when she hit shoal water and found herself hard aground, her bow about 70 feet from the offshore breakwater just west of the foot of Howard Road. To be specific, she was about half way between the Seaway Towers Hotel and the Sunnyside bathing pavilion! And all this just when most of us were sitting down to turkey dinner. The local press was not long in publicizing the plight of the freighter and Boxing Day dawned to crowds of people standing on Sunnyside Beach to watch the embarrassing situation in which the CARL found herself. The Harbour Commission tug WILLIAM REST and the Canadian Dredge and Dock tug BAGOTVILLE tried to free the steamer but all to no avail as her bow was held fast in the suction of the muddy bottom. And to make matters worse, divers had to be called to cut away a cable which fouled the CARL's propellor during the refloating efforts.

On December 27th, the same two tugs plus the McKeil tug LAC COMO from Hamilton tried again, but even with the aid of G. W. ROGERS which was summoned from Kingston, no success was achieved, despite the fact that the stern of the CARL was free to swing. In the afternoon the tug ARGUE MARTIN from Hamilton arrived with a deck barge on which it was planned to drop the CARL's anchors. One more pull was made in the hope that it would work and with the assistance of the MARTIN it did. The CARL came free at 4:17 p.m., almost exactly 48 hours after her grounding, and she then proceeded to a layup berth in the Ship Channel. Understandably, an inquiry will be held to determine how it might be possible for the ship to be so far off course despite the various aids to navigation and the fact that the shore should have been visible to those on watch since the ship was so close to the beach.

Lay-up Listings

Due to late operations by many lake operators, we will be unable to present lay-up listings for most parts until the February and March issues. We can, however, list the vessels laid up at Toronto since the canals in this area have closed and the listing should be final. We have not included tugs, ferries, or vessels moored permanently in port.

Toronto

MONTREALAIS

R. BRUCE ANGUS GEORGE M. CARL GOLDEN HIND NEW YORK NEWS

BEAVERCLIFFE HALL CHICAGO TRIBUNE HERON BAY NORDALE

BLACK RIVER CONGAR BLANCHE HINDMAN JAMES NORRIS

C. W. CADWELL COVE TRANSPORT GEORGE HINDMAN OUTARDE

CANADIAN HUNTER ENGLISH RIVER GORDON C. LEITCH PIC RIVER

CANADIAN MARINER HELEN EVANS LIQUILASSIE QUEBECOIS

CANADIAN PROGRESS FRANQUELIN MEAFORD RIVERSHELL

CAPE TRANSPORT GODERICH METIS THORNHILL

A Famous Trio comes to the Lakes

In the February 1974 issue of "Scanner" we described in detail the three Canadian Pacific Railway steamers ALBERTA, ALGOMA and ATHABASCA which were built on the Clyde in 1883 and which made such a great impression on the travelling public when they entered lake service in the spring of 1884. Through press clippings located and kept by fellow member R.T. "Scotty" McCannell, son of long-time ASSINIBOIA Master and fleet Commodore Capt. James McCannell, we were able to give day-by-day descriptions of the design, building and launching of the three ships as well as their departure for Canada.

This rare Esson photo courtesy R. T. McCannell shows ALGOMA at the C.P.R. elevator, Owen Sound, and illustrates the original appearance of the ship and her two sisters.Thanks again to Mr. McCannell, we are now able to present a detailed description of the passage of the three ships up the St. Lawrence River after they had been cut in two, the information being culled from reports which appeared in The British Whig. Scotty has also assembled clippings from The Sarnia Observer tracing the movements of the vessels up the lakes after they had been rejoined at Buffalo and completed at Port Colborne. The collection of news reports provides a detailed look at what was a most complex and difficult operation, the movement of three 270-foot steamboats through a series of canals whose locks were no more than 250 feet in length.

The British Whig, Kingston, Wednesday, September 26, 1883:

The ATHABASCA, the first of the C.P.R. steamships, has arrived in Montreal after a run of twenty days from Glasgow. She will be cut in two for passage through the upper canals, two bulkheads being built just at the point where this cut will be made, and all that is necessary is to remove the heads of the rivets.

The British Whig, Kingston, Thursday, October 18, 1883;

CONTRACT SECURED

THE DOMINION WRECKING COMPANY WILL TOW

THE C.P.R. STEAMSHIPS UP THE RIVER

Capt. Donnelly has left for Montreal with the steamer HASTINGS and tug FOLGER for the purpose of bringing up the river the C.P.R. steamship ATHABASCA, cut amidships at Montreal and intended for the Lake Superior service. The dimensions of the vessel are such that she had to be cut in this way before she could pass through the St. Lawrence Canals. She is 270 feet long overall, 38 feet beam and 28 feet depth of hold. She has a tonnage of 2000 and accommodation for 180 first class passengers and 1200 steerage passengers. There are two other steamships, ALGOMA and ALBERTA, just arrived in Canada. They also will be cut before being towed to the West. They are all fitted with heavy engines of l700 h.p. The service will connect the two ends of the line from Algoma to Port Arthur, a distance of 364 miles across Lake Superior, the passage occupying about 24 hours. The steamers will commence running next spring when a daily service will be given.

This is the second case in which an iron vessel, too long to pass through the Beauharnois and Cornwall canals, has been cut in half at Montreal. Some years ago several sidewheel gunboats had to undergo an operation before passing through the locks, being too wide, and the paddleboxes and wheels were removed. A similar operation was performed on the fast passenger steamer ROTHESAY when she passed up, but the first case in which the hull of a vessel was cut in order to pass her through the canal was that of the iron steamship CAMPANA two years ago. The time taken in the operation on that occasion was very long, wooden bulkheads having to be built on the face of each section of the cut, while pontoons had to be constructed to bolster the bow and stern to prevent the sections going down by the head and stern. The vessel being constructed in the ordinary way, the cut was very ugly and gave great trouble, the ribands of iron composing the hull being dovetailed into one another. With the ATHABASCA, the operation was much easier, the vessel having been constructed with the knowledge of the required operation. In consequence the sheets of iron were made to fit and to end at the place where she was cut, and iron bulkheads five feet apart erected on each side of the connection. Accordingly all that was necessary was to knock off the heads of the rivets at the joint and float the two pieces to their destination. The necessity of pontoons will be averted by judicious ballasting. Mr. Mansell, one of the builders, superintended the operation of cutting. The steamers, when running, will be the first steel boats ever used on the lakes, besides being by far the largest passenger steamers afloat on those waters.

The British Whig, Kingston, Wednesday, October 24, 1883:

The new C.P.R. steamship ALGOMA was drydocked yesterday to be cut in half for transportation through the canals. The ATHABASCA has been bisected and the water was let into the dock to float the halves. The stern piece was, however, found to be too heavy aft and the water was again let out. Some of the ballast will be taken out, but it is expected that the stern will have to be bolstered with pontoons similar to those used with the CAMPANA.

The British Whig Kingston, Saturday, October 27, 1883:

The pontoons to place under the steamship ATHABASCA are built and efforts are being made to get the vessel out of the dock by their means. Owing to unfortunate causes, it is stated she will not get away for a day or two.

The British Whig Kingston, Saturday. November 3, 1883:

The steamer ATHABASCA has been handed over to Capt. John Donnelly at Lachine and the parts are now en route to Kingston.

The British Whig Kingston, Monday, November 12, 1883:

The sections of the halved and pontooned steamships ATHABASCA and ALGOMA have not yet arrived here, but are expected tonight, the blow not having a tendency to delay them on the river. The bow of the ATHABASCA was reported last night to be at the head of the Matilda Canal and the stern at the head of the Morrisburg Canal. The bow of the ALGOMA had reached the foot of the Matilda Canal and the stern the foot of the Morrisburg Canal.

The sections of the steamship ALBERTA left Cantin's dry dock, Montreal, on Saturday morning in charge of Canal Superintendent Conway for the upper lakes, the work of cutting her in two having been a complete success. The steamships will be towed to Buffalo with all possible haste. The uniting of the parts cannot be done on Lake Ontario as the complete steamships would be five feet too long for even the new locks of the Welland Canal.

The British Whig Kingston, Tuesday, November 13, 1883:

The C.P.R. steamship ALBERTA has reached Valleyfield where she is now moored until more favourable weather sets in. The ATHABASCA is in the vicinity of Brockville.

The British Whig Kingston, Wednesday, November 14, 1883:

The divided parts of the steamships ATHABASCA and ALBERTA were at Brockville last night. They are expected here tonight or tomorrow.

The British Whig Kingston, Saturday, November 17, 1883:

The steamship ATHABASCA lies at South Bay, windbound. The tug ACTIVE has come back from South Bay, having parted her hawser in the passage up to South Bay with the steamship ATHABASCA. She returned to secure another hawser. The ALGOMA left Prescott at noon.

The British Whig Kingston, Monday, November 19, 1883:

The last of the steamships, ALBERTA, arrived at noon. The ATHABASCA left South Bay yesterday and was passed by the prop. ST. MAGNUS striking for the south shore. In the blow of Saturday the steamship lost her pontoons.

Yesterday morning the tug DAVID G. THOMSON, steamer HIRAM A. CALVIN and prop. EUROPE arrived with the steamship ALGOMA from Prescott. The divided craft tied up at Swift's Wharf where, during the day, she was visited by hundreds of persons. Each visitor had something to say of the great proportions of the craft and the probable cost. One man declared that it would cost $60,000 to take the vessel from Montreal to Buffalo. He was stretching the truth greatly. The ALGOMA will go west as soon as tugs can be secured.

The British Whig Kingston, Tuesday, November 20, 1883:

The steamship ATHABASCA has arrived at Port Dalhousie. The other steamships will go west in a few days.

The British Whig Kingston, Wednesday, November 21, 1883:

It was one of the ATHABASCA's pontoons that was picked up at Point Traverse.

The stern part of the steamer ALGOMA is at Charlotte and the bow at McDonald's Cove. The tug METAMORA had the latter, but while going through the Gap her sternpost was pulled out and the towline became entangled in the wheel. The tug came to Kingston for repairs.

The tugs will take ALBERTA to Port Dalhousie as soon as possible. There is great interest in the records made by the tugs in running between Port Dalhousie and Kingston. The tug ACTIVE covered the distance in 18 hours, the HASTINGS in 19 hours, the D.D. PORTER in 15 hours, and the CHIEFTAIN in 13 hours. The Captains say that the latter was not working by the day, but that she made the trip in as short a time as possible in order to get under pay. The other Captains, with so much per day, think that life is too short to make great time.

The British Whig, Kingston, Friday, November 23, 1883:

The steamship ALBERTA was raised yesterday and about 3 o'clock the tugs started with her for Port Dalhousie. The chains that were lashed around the pontoons attached to the steamer ALGOMA cut through them and they filled with water. In this condition the craft was taken to Charlotte. It will require some time to make repairs.

The British Whig Kingston, Saturday, November 24, 1883:

The tug ACTIVE and consorts have safely delivered the steamship ALBERTA to Port Dalhousie. The ALGOMA was expected there yesterday.

On Wednesday night a Thorold citizen walked out to see the ATHABASCA at Lock 21. He walked on and on till he found himself in the canal at the head gates of the lock, from which he was rescued. He did not wait to see the noble vessel; he was content with what he saw at the bottom of the canal.

The Port Arthur Sentinel, Saturday, November 24, 1883:

The C.P.R. steamship ATHABASCA arrived at Kingston on Thursday morning last. The passage through the canals required great care owing to the pontoons which buoyed up the stern being very frail. The third pontoon on the ATHABASCA had to be removed at every lock. The steamer HASTINGS assisted by the H. M. MIXER canalled the ATHABASCA.

In the Edwardsburg Canal the ALGOMA's bow was taken by the H.F. BRONSON and the stern by the HIRAM A. CALVIN and JESSIE HALL. The BRONSON, HASTINGS and CALVIN towed the parts of ALGOMA and ATHABASCA to Prescott. The latter was then towed to Kingston by HASTINGS and HIRAM A. CALVIN and the tug S.S. EDSALL.

From Dickinson's Landing to Matilda the craft were assisted by the tug ONTARIO. Capt. Murphy, owing to knowledge of the currents, rendered very good service in steering. The tugs JESSIE HALL and H. F. BRONSON have gone back to assist the tugs ONTARIO, FAVELLE, GEORGIA and MAY SMITH in bringing the ALBERTA through the canal. The steamers HASTINGS, S.S. EDSALL, ACTIVE and DAVID G. THOMSON will, as soon as the weather permits, start for Port Dalhousie. The steamers will then return to take the parts of the other steamers west.

The British Whig Kingston, Saturday, December 15. 1883:

Two pontoons which broke away from one of the C.P.R. steamships recently taken to Buffalo, came ashore at South Bay and are in the possession of Mr. Alva Rose.

The Sarnia Observer, Friday, April 11, 1884:

Commodore Anderson left this morning for Port Colborne to take charge of the ATHABASCA, the leading vessel of the C.P.R. fleet. The Commodore says he will start on the opening of navigation for Owen Sound, calling at Sarnia by the way. If time is allowed at this port there will be a general turn out to see the new Clyde-built steamers.

The Sarnia Observer, Friday, April 25, 1884:

We learn from Port Colborne that Capt. Anderson has been appointed to the command of the ALBERTA and as the other two boats are nearer completion than the ALBERTA, it will be the last one to leave for the upper lakes.

The Sarnia Observer, Friday, May 16, 1884:

The ALGOMA of the C.P.R. steamship line and the first of the new fleet to ascend the lakes called here on Friday last (May 9) and during her stay was inspected by thousands of people, and of both sexes. Capt. Moore's good nature was severely taxed to answer all the questions put to him in regard to the boat as were the engineers and other officers. Saturday evening the ALBERTA arrived, Commodore Anderson in command. There was another rush to see the new boat and welcome her popular commander and during her brief stay the vessel was literally overrun with visitors. On Monday the last of the fleet, the ATHABASCA, Capt. Foote, passed up.

As all three are to outward appearances exactly alike, a description of one will serve for all. These vessels were built on the Clyde last year under the supervision of Mr. Henry Beatty and were brought to this country to be fitted out with cabins etc., which work was done at Port Colborne. They are 270 feet in length, 38 feet breadth of beam and the hold is 15 feet deep. Their molded depth is 23 feet, 3 inches. Taking the ALBERTA as a sample: She carries the Plimsoll loading mark which permits her to be loaded to a depth of 15 feet at which draft she is expected to carry 2000 tons of freight. From keel to rail she is constructed entirely of steel, the plates being of various thickness in different parts of the hull. Her hull is divided into watertight compartments by six steel bulkheads and the watertight-ness of these cannot be doubted as they were thoroughly tested when she was cut in two and towed up the lakes. There is no communication whatever between these compartments, so that in a collision there will be no doors to shut to prevent the water running from one to another. The main and promenade decks are of steel and the only parts of the ship that can burn are the cargo and the cabin. Her cabin runs nearly the length of the ship and is plain and substantial. It as well as other parts of the steamer is lighted by electricity. The main saloon is nearly as large as a sidewheel steamer but it is made so at the expense of the staterooms which are somewhat small and cramped.

She has single berths for 180 first class passengers and accommodation for steerage passengers on the main deck aft of the engines. She can comfortably accommodate 1000 passengers of all classes. The cabin is supplied with bathroom and smoking room. The cabin furniture, carpets, etc., are all of the best and most substantial character. The kitchen and oil room are encased in steel. The fire protection of the steamer is arranged somewhat after the manner of the Holly system and there is at all times a pressure of 50 p.s.i. on all the hydrants and the hose is at all times screwed on ready for use.

In the way of motive power she is provided with a fore and aft compound engine with cylinders 70 and 35 x 48 inches which is supplied by steam from two boilers tested up to 210 p.s.i. The boilers are built of steel plate one inch in thickness and each one has 220 three and one-half inch tubes. The furnaces are of corrugated iron. The machinery will turn a propellor 13'6" in diameter with 21-foot pitch. The engine will develop 1700 h.p. and is expected to propel the steamer from 16 to 18 m.p.h. She has in all fourteen engines on board, used for hoisting anchors and freight, working steam pumps, steering and everything else that requires power. Her steam steering gear, which is of the most perfect kind made, can be worked in the pilothouse or on the bridge and she has an auxiliary wheel aft to be used in case of accident to the steam gear. She is provided with a Sir William Thompson patent compass which is supplied with an apparatus consisting of two hollow iron globes for correcting the deviation of the compass incidental to iron and steel ships. She has two steel masts rigged with fore-and-aft canvas. These masts, together with her short thick smokestack, rake aft in a style that gives a decidedly business-like appearance to the ship. She carries six yawlboats, each of which is provided with a compass, sailing gear, water bucket, etc., and each is arranged so that when it is lowered and the proper number of people in it, it will unhook itself from the ropes by which it is lowered. Besides the boats, she carries a large number of life preservers and rafts.

The means of signalling between the captain and engineer is similar to that in use on ocean steamers. On the bridge at the pilothouse is a dial, in front of which is a lever. When the engine is stationary the lever stands upright. Moving it one way signals the engineer to go ahead and moving the other way is the signal to reverse the engine. On this dial is a hand which is worked from the engineroom and the hand follows the lever when the engineer understands the signal.

The ALBERTA in all her parts is up to the English Board of Trade regulations. Each steamer is said to have cost $300,000. She looked beautiful at night when illuminated with electric lights and as she moved off from the dock was greeted with rousing cheers by the large crowds assembled.

The Masters of ALGOMA and ALBERTA are two of our most popular captains and are men who take a deep interest in Sarnia, and almost every person was on the watch to see them pass through. The ALGOMA when she arrived here had on 200 tons of coal and 300 tons of pig iron and was drawing 7 feet forward and 13 feet aft. Capt. Moore had been on his feet 96 hours (?) when he reached here. The ALGOMA stopped to let off Mrs. John Beatty and Mrs. Henry Beatty who were the first passengers carried on the new boat, and for the captain to see his friends. The ALGOMA is officered as follows: Capt. Moore of the steamer QUEBEC; Mate, G. Hastings of the steamer PARISIAN, Allan Line; Second Mate, R. McLeod; Engineer, George Pettigrew of the steamer ONTARIO; Assistant, Alexander McDermott; Purser, Alex. McKenzie; Steward, C. Taylor.

When the ALBERTA arrived here she had 175 tons of coal and 250 tons of pig iron and was drawing 7 feet forward and 12 feet aft. The following comprise the crew of the steamer: Captain, Commodore Anderson of the steamer CAMPANA; Mate, G. Simpson; Second Mate, John Wagner; Engineer, D. McLean; Assistant, James Wilson; Purser, J. Johnston; Steward, Edward Masterson.

Of the ATHABASCA we can say only that she passed up about dusk on Monday evening and did not do us the favour of a call. Of her crew we only know that she is commanded by Capt. Foote, and that Mr. T. Pettigrew is first engineer and Mr. John Kelly assistant. The two latter are old Sarnia residents and we feel sure would have been glad to give their old friends here a call in passing. A large crowd was assembled to meet them and much disappointment was felt when it was seen that the vessel had no intention of stopping.

The Sarnia Observer, Friday, May 16, 1884:

A good thing on the marine reporter of the Detroit Free Press is the taking of the code signals on the ALBERTA for the "flags of all nations". Queer he didn't know what resemblance she bears to an ocean steamship after all.

The Sarnia Observer, Friday, May 30, 1884:

An Owen Sound dispatch of the 23rd says: The CAMPANA and ATHABASCA, the latter the fastest boat on the new C.P.R. line, had an exciting race in the upper lakes this week. The two steamers left Port Arthur at 4:15 on Sunday afternoon on the down trip. The boats kept in sight of each other during the whole trip. On Tuesday morning they left Sault Ste. Marie, reaching Owen Sound in 16 hours, the ATHABASCA coming in about five miles ahead, making the fastest time on record on that route.

The Sarnia Observer, Friday, June 13, 1884:

We regret to learn that Capt. Moore of the C.P.R. steamer ALGOMA is lying very ill of inflammation of the lungs at Sault Ste. Marie. Mrs. Moore was telegraphed for and went up on the steamer ONTARIO on Friday night. We hope that the captain will soon get better and be able to attend to his duties again. Capt. Morrison was telegraphed for and is now commanding the ALGOMA. Capt. Moore could not have left his boat in better hands.

The Sarnia Observer, Friday, June 27, 1884:

Considerable excitement was caused here on Monday by the announcement that the steamer ALGOMA of the C.P.R. line was three days overdue at Owen Sound. The ALBERTA was two days over her time making the trip from Port Arthur to Owen Sound owing to dense fogs. Monday night a dispatch was received stating that the ALGOMA had arrived at Owen Sound at 5 o'clock on Monday morning. There had been heavy fogs on Lake Superior and the captain said that was the cause of the delay. All the way down she was in fog and it was dangerous to run at anything like speed.

The McCannell collection of news reports includes many other items of a rather humourous nature concerning the three vessels but those included above are the most important from a historical point of view as regards the advent of the steamers and their first year of service. One other item, however, is of considerable importance in that it mentions a rather nasty incident which occurred during ALBERTA's eleventh season of operation.

An item appeared in the Owen Sound Times of May 30, 1894 and mentioned that ALBERTA, under the command of Capt. J. McAllister, had encountered heavy gale conditions while downbound in Lake Superior. One wave came over the vessel's bow and crashed down on deck. The front of the cabin was smashed in and the sea came in through the pilothouse, carrying out the back windows. The forecastle companionway was broken off and water filled the forecastle, rushing out on the main deck passageway at a depth of three feet and flooding the diningroom and forward staterooms. The impact was so great that the steam steering gear was shifted back four inches. Stanchions were bent like straws and some of them were carried away. About thirty feet of projecting hurricane deck on the port side was carried away and the steel deck and deck frames were sunk about four inches.

In our earlier history of the original trio, we mentioned that the bows of the surviving pair ALBERTA and ATHABASCA, together with MANITOBA, were rebuilt early in the new century. In fact, we now learn that this operation was performed in February and March of 1897 and at that time the turtle-backed forecastles and raised pilothouses were added.

Speaking of MANITOBA, we did not say much about her in our original article since she was not a member of the original trio and was constructed by Polson Iron Works at Owen Sound to serve as a replacement for the lost ALGOMA. She was launched on May 4, 1889 but, strangely enough, she did not operate in 1890. She was placed back in service in 1891 but she was once again laid up during 1894 and part of 1895. She re-entered service on the Georgian Bay to Lakehead route in June 1895 when ALBERTA was placed on the route from Windsor to the Lakehead with way calls at Courtright, Sarnia, Mackinac Island and the Soo. This route was a summer service only for ALBERTA and was terminated at the end of August. ALBERTA once again went on the Windsor route from June to August 1896 but the run was cancelled at the end of that season.

On the subject of MANITOBA we shall have more to say at a later date and as well we will devote an article to the story of the arrival in the Great Lakes of KEEWATIN and ASSINIBOIA.

Additional Marine News

The motorvessel BLACK RIVER is presently sporting yet another version of the new Q & O funnel design and we wonder whether this may be the design to be applied to all the ships. She still carries the blue pine tree (?) on a white band, but this is then surrounded by two very narrow blue bands. The top and bottom sections of the funnel are black. This variant of the scheme is rather pleasing and does not offend the eye as does the blue and green design the other ships of the fleet carry.

An examination of the EDMUND FITZGERALD wreck will be carried out by the U.S. Coast Guard in the spring, making use of a "cable controlled unmanned recovery vehicle" equipped with photographic installations and a claw used to grasp recoverable objects. The critter is called a CURV III vehicle.

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Scanner, v. 8, n. 4 (January 1976)


Meetings; The Editor's Notebook; A Famous Trio comes to the Lakes; Additional Marine News