The Maritime History of the Great Lakes
Scanner, v. 13, n. 6 (March 1981)
Publication:
Scanner (Toronto, ON), Mar 1981


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Bascom, John N., Editor
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Website
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Meetings; The Editor's Notebook; Captain Augustus R. Hinckley - Lake Ontario Mariner; Lay-up Listings; Annual Dinner Meeting
Date of Publication:
Mar 1981
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English
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Protected by copyright: Uses other than research or private study require the permission of the rights holder(s). Responsibility for obtaining permissions and for any use rests exclusively with the user.
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Meetings

Friday, April 3rd - 8:00 p.m. at the Museum. Jack Heintz will show marinephotos from Hong Kong, Singapore, the Hook of Holland, etc.

Saturday, May 2nd - Annual Dinner Meeting. Please see details below.

The Editor's Notebook

The February meeting featured the continuation of the reminiscences of Capt. John Leonard. A fascinating event, one that saw the entire multitude present held spellbound throughout the evening.

THE ANNUAL DINNER MEETING will be held at the Ship Inn, in the cellar of the Museum, on Saturday, May 2nd. Our thanks to the Toronto Blue Jays for not having a home game that evening! Dinner will be served at 7:00 and the bar will be open from 6:00 for those who might enjoy a pre-dinner restorative. Our speaker, Lorne Joyce, will present some of the historic Bay of Quinte material from the collection of our late member Willis Metcalfe, courtesy of Mrs. Metcalfe. The cost will be $12.75 per person and guests will be welcome. Space is limited, so please reserve as soon as possible. As our Chief Purser will be on vacation during March, reservations (with remittance, please) should be sent to the Secretary, J. H. Bascom, 100 Whitehall Road, Toronto, Ontario M4W 2C7. Reservations must be received PRIOR TO APRIL 3 so that we may make our commitment to the restaurant, so we look forward to hearing from you by return mail.

In the New Member Department, a hearty welcome goes out to David Willett of Essexville, Michigan, to Fred Walker and Melvin G. Painter of St. Catharines, and to William F. Rapprich of Rocky River, Ohio.

Marine News

AVALON VOYAGER II, ravaged by winter ice, lies on the Lake Huron shore, about 1/4 mile off Wreck Point, between Hay Bay and Cape Hurd Channel. January 24, 1981, photo by Ron Beaupre. Despite hopes that RAYMOND H. REISS would be resold for further operation, scrapping has now begun at Ramey's Bend on the 65-year-old bulk carrier which was retired shortly before Christmas by the Cleveland-Cliffs Steamship Company. By mid-February, the bowthruster had been cut out of her and the usual bar had been placed through her forefoot for hauling the remains up the slip as dismantling progresses. Marine Salvage Ltd. may still be hoping to sell the engine from RAYMOND H. REISS, a 4,320 BHP Nordberg diesel, 16 cylinders, which was placed in the ship in 1966.

Another Cliffs vessel is facing an uncertain future. WILLIAM P. SNYDER JR., four years older than RAYMOND H. REISS, was supposedly retired at the close of the 1980 season and laid up at the Triad Salvage scrapyard at Ashtabula. SNYDER was to be sold to Triad during the winter if no other buyer could be found for her. It seems, however, that the scrap sale has not been completed and we have heard many rumours concerning various uses to which the ship might be put. We sincerely hope that this handsome steamer will escape the torches, but her age will be working against her. Even her "new" Skinner Unaflow engine is now 31 years old!

Early in the 1981 shipping season, Bay Shipbuilding will deliver to Columbia Transportation that fleet's first 1,000-foot self-unloader. We are happy to note that she will be given the interesting and most appropriate name COLUMBIA STAR. She will be generally similar in appearance to BELLE RIVER, LEWIS WILSON FOY, INDIANA HARBOR and BURNS HARBOR, all BayShip products.

The next new vessel to be completed at Collingwood after the delivery of ALGOWOOD, will be the 730-foot straight-decker ordered last year by Nipigon Transport Ltd. She will be launched in late April (the date is not yet certain) and will be christened later. To be named LAKE WABUSH in honour of the iron-mining area in Labrador, the stemwinder will have a raked bulbous bow.

Hull 70 of Port Weller Dry Docks Ltd., due for delivery to Upper Lakes Shipping Ltd. during 1983, will be christened CANADIAN AMBASSADOR. She will be a 730-foot stemwinder self-unloader, similar to CANADIAN PIONEER which is presently taking shape on the shipyard's graving dock.

The McAsphalt tug TUSKER is on salt water this winter along with the barge LIQUILASSIE, the latter owned by L. B. Tankers Inc. of Windsor. The intention was to leave LIQUILASSIE on salt water and to have TUSKER bring another barge back to the lakes in the spring. McAsphalt was extremely wise to turn down the chance to tow D. G. KERR across the Atlantic to a European scrapyard. However, on February 6, TUSKER and LIQUILASSIE were on Tampa Bay when, in the ebb tide, they veered off course and struck one of the support columns of the Gandy Bridge. Damage to LIQUILASSIE was minimal but repairs to the bridge will cost some $174,000 and the structure will be closed to road traffic until late March. TUSKER was held pending investigation of the accident but is expected to sail for New Orleans in mid-March. There she will pick up an Exxon barge which will be brought to the lakes in the spring.

The southbound voyage of TRIO BRAVO (JOHN ROEN V) and TRIO TRADO (MAITLAND NO. 1) has proved unfortunate for both. Bad weather forced the tow to put in at Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia, on December 24 for shelter. ROEN V went on her way shortly thereafter without the barge, and arrived at Port Everglades in January. She was to be refitted there but sank at her dock on January 21. We have no word on salvage. MAITLAND, meanwhile, was picked up by another tug which also took in tow HILDA, another former carferry and Roen Steamship Company pulpwood barge which was sold for off-lakes use in 1974. We have no idea how HILDA became part of the tow but she, like MAITLAND, was loaded with scrap. In heavy weather, the tow became severely iced and, when between Yarmouth, N.S., and Rockland, Maine, MAITLAND capsized and sank. There was no loss of life. It had been intended that ROEN V would tow MAITLAND NO. 1 in the scrap trade between Port Everglades and Progreso, Mexico, a port near Merida at the tip of the Yucatan Peninsula.

The following information has been received concerning the overseas activities of several of the lakers that were sold for scrapping during 1980:

THOMAS F. PATTON and CHARLES M. WHITE cleared Quebec on September 8 in tow of FAIRPLAY IX, bound for Karachi, Pakistan. TOM M. GIRDLER left Quebec on September 16 in tow of HANSEAT. She put in at the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic and cleared there on October 24, also en route to Karachi.

EUGENE J. BUFFINGTON and J. P. MORGAN JR. arrived at Bilbao, Spain, on October 22. The tug AZNAR JOSE LUIS towed MORGAN from Bilbao on November 7 and arrived with her at Aviles, Spain, on the 8th. The same tug left Bilbao with BUFFINGTON on the 13th for Aviles. Arrival date is not known.

HELEN EVANS and THORNHILL arrived at Mamonal, Colombia, on October 30, diverted from their original destination of Cartagena. The dates reported earlier for their two returns to Halifax were apparently incorrect, for CAPT. IOANNIS S. is said to have left there with them on October 16.

GOVERNOR MILLER and ALVA C. DINKEY left Quebec on October 18 with CATHY B. and arrived at Ferrol, Spain, on November 12. On the 18th, CATHY B. took MILLER in tow and arrived with her at Vigo, Spain, on November 20.

D. G. KERR was lost at sea in heavy weather. She foundered in the North Atlantic on December 12, approximately eight miles east of Santa Maria Island in the Azores.

The disposal of inactive tinstackers continues. Two further steamers, JOSHUA A. HATFIELD (1923) and AUGUST ZIESING (1918), both of which are laid up at Duluth, have been stripped in preparation for sale, but no actual transaction has yet been reported.

During 1980, it was supposed that the acquisition of Huron Cement from National Gypsum Company by General Dynamics was proceeding and that the Huron boats would soon sport new colours. We now learn that General Dynamics only took an option on Huron and that this option has been dropped. Accordingly, Huron's interesting fleet will likely retain its present livery.

The 63-year-old tanker AMOCO ILLINOIS, (a) WILLIAM P. COWAN (62), appears to have reached the end of her active career. She sailed from Sturgeon Bay in December and subsequently laid up at Bay City, Michigan. The Amoco Oil Company has now decided that AMOCO ILLINOIS will remain idle at Bay City for several years (to air out her tanks) and that she will then be sold for scrapping. It also seems unlikely that AMOCO INDIANA and AMOCO WISCONSIN will operate more than a few more years each.

The U.S. Steel Corp. intends to use its reactivated IRVIN L. CLYMER almost exclusively in the salt trade after she is placed back in service in 1981. CLYMER is wintering at Superior, where she is being refurbished by Fraser Shipyards. Her holds will be lined with a special vinyl coating to reduce corrosion from the salt. The reactivation of CLYMER is a particularly happy event, coming as it does after many years of idleness.

A new company, Rideau-St. Lawrence Cruise Ships Inc. of Kingston, has been formed to operate a cruise service between Montreal, Alexandria Bay and Kingston, and thence up the Rideau River to Ottawa. It is hoped that its first boat will be launched in August and operational by September, 1981. CANADIAN EMPRESS will be all-aluminum, with a length of 108 feet and capacity for 32 staterooms. The contract for her construction, said to be worth more than $1,700,000., has been let to Algan Shipyard Ltd., Gananoque. CANADIAN EMPRESS will be diesel-powered, but will carry a steam whistle and her cabins will be modelled after such early Rideau steamers as RIDEAU KING. Her furnishings will be authentic to the turn of the century.

The Mohawk Navigation Company Ltd. has now passed into history after many years of lake service. The company, whose two ships, SILVER ISLE and SENNEVILLE, were repainted in somewhat unusual colours during 1980, is now known as Pioneer Shipping Ltd. and is an affiliate of Pioneer Grain.

Halco's MONTCLIFFE HALL, (a) EMS ORE (77), suffered considerable damage to her accommodations in a fire which occurred at her winter berth at Sarnia on February 26. The fire, which allegedly started with a welder's torch, will probably keep the ship out of service until at least June. MONTCLIFFE HALL is a sistership to CARTIERCLIFFE HALL which, on June 5, 1979, suffered a serious fire in her after cabin. Seven lives were lost in that accident.

The old metal-sheathed wooden freight shed on Toronto's Pier 6, foot of York Street, was severely damaged in a spectacular fire early in the morning of February 15. Most of the shed was destroyed and only the end closest to Queen's Quay was saved, although that section will be demolished shortly. Damage was also occasioned to the tug/whatever EMPIRE SANDY which was lying in the slip at the time. The once-handsome old building, which had not been used for marine purposes since C.S.L. pulled its package freight services out of Toronto in the early 1960s, was latterly used as a construction office for the Harbourfront developments of the Campeau Corporation.

The Metropolitan Toronto Parks Department carferry ONGIARA, which normally maintains winter ferry service to the Toronto Islands, was out of service from shortly after New Year's until February 23, forcing residents and island visitors to travel via the Island Airport ferry MAPLE CITY and a special bus service on the Island. The withdrawal of ONGIARA was supposedly due to heavy ice on the Bay, together with the necessity of repairs to the rudder and wheel at one end of the double-ended vessel.

NORDIC SUN is the name chosen for the U.S.-owned tanker which will accompany the Canadian-owned SUNCOR CHIPPEWA on the upcoming Sunchem Shipping Inc. service between Sarnia and Rotterdam. Service will begin during 1981.

Several Canadian tankers are worthy of mention. Neither NORTHERN SHELL nor JAMES TRANSPORT has yet been lengthened, although the midbody for NORTHERN SHELL is being built by Vickers at Montreal. JAMES TRANSPORT collided with EDOUARD SIMARD in early February and the SIMARD was drydocked at Vickers for repairs. ARTHUR SIMARD has also been drydocked, but for the repair of bottom damage suffered in a recent incident on Lake St. Peter.

By early February, repairs were well under way at Port Weller on the collision damage suffered by QUEDOC last autumn. The damaged steel on her forward end had been cut away in preparation for the fitting of new plates and cabin detail. Another Paterson boat in trouble late in 1980 was KINGDOC, which grounded at Pugwash, outbound with salt, on December 8. She was refloated on December 9 with the assistance of the tug POINT VALIANT.

The on-again-off-again shipyard project planned for Port Robinson by E. S. Fox Ltd. is still under consideration. There is much opposition from local residents and a final decision is expected from the regional authorities during the month of March.

The most recent owner of the cut-down, former Lake Michigan carferry PERE MARQUETTE 21 has been Coordinated Caribbean Transport of Miami, Florida, which operated her in a ro/ro service as (b) CONSOLIDATOR. Unfortunately, CONSOLIDATOR ran foul of Hurricane Jean off the coast of Honduras, and the barge foundered on November 12. No lives were lost in the accident.

MATHILDA DESGAGNES, the former ESKIMO, which was purchased during 1980 by Groupe Desgagnes, will be kept busy on salt water for the next three years. She will be running between Quebec and Algeria, carrying milk powder for the Canadian Dairy Commission, and Desgagnes is even looking for another ship of about the same size to help with the contract.

The dismantling of the salty PHOTINIA was begun at Kewaunee shortly after the New Year. PHOTINIA has done considerable travelling around Lake Michigan, all in search of a scrapyard, since she was rendered a total loss in a stranding off Milwaukee several years ago. PHOTINIA long operated into the lakes under the flag of the Stag Line of North Shields, England.

Ship of the Month No. 100

Quedoc (I)

It seems difficult to believe that this is the 100th "Ship of the Month" feature that has appeared in the pages of "Scanner". The very first, even if it was not labelled as such, was a history of the steamer VICTORIOUS which appeared in the May, 1969, issue (Volume I, Number 10) shortly after that venerable ship had been sold for use as a breakwater. The series began to assume its present form with Ship of the Month No. 2, METEOR, which was presented in Volume II, Number 1 (October, 1969). We are now marking an important milestone in the history of our little publication, and we hope that we will be able to bring you these interesting features for many years to come.

On this auspicious occasion, we have chosen a steamer which enjoyed a life of more than seventy years, five of these having been spent on salt water. She was a handsome ship, with classic lines, but she retained much of her original appearance through to the end of her days and, as a result, was considered to be something of a floating museum-piece in her later years. Those who remember this peculiar old boat from her last gasp of active service in the 1950s do so with considerable fondness and with the wish that more of the steamers of her vintage were still around to provide relief from the stark and ungracious lines of modern vessels.

No stranger to these pages is the name of the Globe Iron Works of Cleveland, one of the more famous builders of lake vessels during the early years of steel construction. Globe built its Hull 31 over the winter of 1899-1890 and the steel vessel was launched into the waters of the Cuyahoga River on February 18, 1890. Scarcely larger than what was to become known as "canal size", she was 282.4 feet in length, 40.3 feet in the beam, and 21.2 feet in depth. Her original tonnage was 2325.99 Gross and 1835.86 Net. Her propeller was driven by a triple-expansion engine which was built for her by the shipyard and which had cylinders of 24 1/2, 38 and 61 inches, and a stroke of 42 inches. Steam was provided by two coal-fired Scotch boilers which also were manufactured by Globe Iron Works. As can be seen from the dimensions of the engine, it was a powerful piece of machinery indeed, intended to give the steamer enough horsepower not only to move herself and her own cargo but also to tow a fully loaded barge and still be able to make reasonable speed. It must be remembered that tow barges were all the rage in the years immediately prior to the turn of the century, some of the barges being even larger than the steamers that regularly pulled them.

This very early photo shows MARISKA upbound in the Weitzel Lock at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. Note the absence of an after mast. The new boat was registered at Cleveland, Ohio, and was enrolled as U.S. 92169. She was christened MARISKA by her owner, the Minnesota Steamship Company of Duluth, which was a subsidiary of the Minnesota Iron Mining Company. The parent firm had been formed back in the 1880s by Charlemagne Tower Jr., Colonel James Pickands, Samuel Mather and Jay C. Morse. During the 1890s, the Minnesota Steamship Company's large fleet was managed by Pickands Mather and Company, Cleveland. It was the practice of Minnesota to give all of its vessels names beginning with the letters 'MA' and ending with 'A'. All Minnesota ships were built for the fleet except for PENNSYLVANIA and TEXAS, which were built on speculation in 1899 by the Cleveland Shipbuilding Company. Both were purchased almost immediately after completion by Minnesota and, although they were soon renamed MATAAFA and MALIETOA, respectively, at least PENNSYLVANIA is known to have operated in Minnesota colours under her original name. The names given by the fleet to its various ships were both original and unusual, and many of them carried these names through to the ends of their careers.

MARISKA was an extremely handsome boat, as was typical of many of the early steel-hulled lakers. She was given a straight stem and a slightly turtle-backed forecastle, and she carried her anchors on the forecastle head, the chains rising upward from slanted hawseholes and a davit being mounted at the stem to drop the "hooks" as necessary. Her bridge structure was set back off the forecastle but was joined to it by means of a catwalk. The almost square texas cabin was surmounted by a smaller house which contained the master's quarters and, just forward of this, was her ornate pilothouse, raised slightly above the level of the bridge deck. Five sectioned windows gave light across its slightly curved front, and an open monkey's island, complete with fancy awning, was provided atop the pilothouse so that the navigating officers could enjoy unobstructed vision regardless of weather conditions. Bridge wings protruded outwards from the top of the master's cabin.

MARISKA's forecastle swept down in a graceful curve to the spar deck rail which, enclosed for its entire length, gave an extra touch of grace to the hull's sweeping sheer. She carried a small "indented" boilerhouse, out of which rose her short and unusually thick stack. The raked funnel was not cut perpendicular to its sides at the top but rather was chopped off parallel to the water and edged with a small roll. Aft of the boilerhouse was a larger cabin which provided accommodations for the "after" crew and which possessed large square windows. MARISKA's interesting profile was enhanced by her extremely fine counter stern and the fact that she carried but one tall mast. Fitted with a long gaff, it sprouted from the bridge structure just abaft the pilothouse. Her lifeboats were carried amidships on deck, with davits provided there for their lifting; it was not the custom of the day to place lifeboats atop the after cabin.

MARISKA sported what we believe to have been a black hull, with a small white stripe on the beading at the edge of the spar deck. Her forecastle was white, as were her cabins. The name appeared in black on the forecastle, while the company's name (inscribed as the 'Minnesota Steam Ship Co.') was painted on the spar deck "rail" just below the forecastle. The stack was black, with a white equilateral triangle on which appeared a red 'M' .

The early steel lake bulk carriers were frequently built in groups and MARISKA was one of these, the first of her particular series. She had an almost exact sistership, MANOLA, which was built in 1890 as Globe's Hull 32. Similar, although some eight feet longer, were Globe Hulls 33 and 34, MARUBA and MATOA of 1890. Still similar, but two feet longer yet, were MARINA and MASABA, built in 1891 as Hulls 1 and 2 of the Chicago Shipbuilding Company.

MARISKA enjoyed a successful period of service for the Minnesota Steamship Company, carrying iron ore downbound from Lake Superior to the Lake Erie ports. She changed very little during this time, except for the addition of a tall mainmast which was placed immediately forward of the stack, almost at the forward end of the boilerhouse. But things were to change for her owner, and these changes soon resulted in new colours for MARISKA. It was in 1900 that the Minnesota Iron Mining Company was absorbed by the Federal Steel Company, an enterprise of the famous J. Pierpont Morgan. Federal was, in turn, involved in the larger consolidation of 1901 which brought into being the United States Steel Corporation, this many-faceted merger having been orchestrated by Morgan and by his right hand, Elbert H. Gary.

U.S. Steel immediately formed a shipping subsidiary to take over the vessel interests of the merged steel firms, and this soon came to be known as the Pittsburgh Steamship Company. This fleet was long one of the most prestigious on the lakes, and still survives under the name of the United States Steel Corporation Great Lakes Fleet. Its boats at first wore dark green hulls with white cabins and all-silver stacks, but the hulls soon became the traditional red which we still see today, and the stacks soon took on black smokebands at the top. MARISKA was no exception. Apart from these changes in colours, she went through no great alterations during her Pittsburgh years.

As the years passed, however, MARISKA and her contemporaries were gradually superceded in the Pittsburgh fleet by newer and much larger steamers. By the beginning of World War I, the company was operating many ships that were more than three hundred feet longer than MARISKA, and her small cubic capacity for iron ore was no longer suitable to the "Steel Trust". She was considered to be expendable and, when an offer was made for her, the corporation snapped it up quickly.

MARISKA was purchased in 1914 by the Bassett Steamship Company Ltd., Toronto, which was formed in 1914 by Capt. R. D. Bassett and incorporated under the Ontario Companies Act with capital of $100,000. The company was related to Capt. W. J. Bassett's Western Steamship Company Ltd., which had owned the canallers J. A. McKEE and WEXFORD. Over the years, the Bassetts also had an interest in WESTERIAN (the iron-hulled former Anchor Liner CHINA), the wooden-hulled GALE STAPLES, and the upper laker BRITON, the latter having been sold out of the "tinstack" fleet earlier in the same year that MARISKA was sold.

The ownership of MARISKA was officially transferred to Bassett on July 16, 1914, and she was enrolled at Collingwood as C.130979 without change of name. There is no record of MARISKA having been lengthened at this time, but the 1914 Dominion List of Shipping indicates that the Canadian surveyors measured her length as 297.0 feet, although her beam and depth were unaltered from those dimensions previously reported in the United States. Her Canadian tonnage was registered as 2502 Gross and 1875 Net. She was reboilered in 1915 with two new Scotch boilers which had been built by the North Eastern Marine Engineering Company Ltd. of Wallsend-on-Tyne and Sunderland, England; they measured 14'6" by 11'3" and produced steam at 180 p.s.i. They were, of course, coal-fired.

Sometime shortly after Bassett purchased MARISKA, she was given a major rebuild from the spar deck upwards. Her old closed deck rail was cut back to a point slightly aft of the break of the forecastle, and was replaced from that point, aft to just forward of the boilerhouse, with a more modern and useful open rail. The boilerhouse itself was enlarged and was joined to the aft cabin but her old stack remained, now painted black with a broad silver band. The most striking changes were effected forward, for her entire old bridge structure was removed. In its place, a new and round-fronted texas cabin was built on the forecastle behind closed bulwarks. Atop it appeared a modern rounded pilothouse, complete with sunvisor and a closed dodger rail which curved outwards at each side onto large bridgewings. As well, MARISKA's heavy old masts were gone, replaced by two very light poles and with the main now placed abaft the stack. Unfortunately, we have no idea when or where this work was done.

With her cabins and forecastle painted white and the hull, apparently, now black, MARISKA operated for Bassett throughout the years of the First War. We have no record of any untoward incidents which might have marred her service. Her major cargo was grain but, as was the custom of the day for Canadian lakers, she probably carried just about every other cargo going as well.

The war years, however, took many lakers down through the old canals to salt water, where their services were required to aid with the war effort. Bassett sent BRITON to the coast in 1917, and several of MARISKA's former companions from the Pittsburgh fleet were also requisitioned and sent east after complete rebuilding. MANOLA, MARUBA, MATOA and MASABA (the latter having found her way into the fleet of the Mathews Steamship Company Ltd.) all passed down through the canals after having been cut in two. All but MASABA would eventually return to their home waters.

The rebuilt MARISKA, in Bassett Steamship Co. colours, is cut apart at Buffalo for the passage to the coast. Photo dated September 23, 1918. It was during the summer of 1918 that MARISKA was sold to J.F.M. Stewart of Toronto and L.C. Herdman of Montreal for operation on salt water by their Transatlantic Steamship Company. She was taken to the yard of the Buffalo Dry Dock Company and, during September, 1918, she was cut into sections for the transit of the old Welland and St. Lawrence canals. Both halves made the trip safely and they were rejoined later that autumn at Montreal by Canadian Vickers Ltd. MARISKA then proceeded under her own power to Halifax, where certain alterations were put in hand to make her more suitable for ocean service. Rather surprisingly, her forward cabins were not touched, but her after cabin was plated in for protection, right aft to the fantail. Thereafter, she simply appeared to have a raised quarterdeck with no enclosures on the upper level. It is probably safe to assume that it was also at this time that MARISKA was given a new stack; it was quite large and much taller than the original, but it lacked the rake of her first funnel and stood almost perpendicular to the deck.

MARISKA ran on salt water for five years and seems to have served her owners well. As far as we know, she was involved in only one accident of any consequence during this period, and it occurred on December 27, 1919, whilst MARISKA was on passage from Baltimore to Nantes, France. She collided with the GERALDINE WOLVIN in Nantes harbour but damage was apparently not extensive. We have so far been unable to trace GERALDINE WOLVIN, but we wonder whether she may have been connected in some manner with the famous lake Wolvins, Augustus B. and Roy M., who were prominent in both Canadian and U.S. shipping.

After the cessation of the war, lakers that had gone to salt water gradually found their way back home. Many ships, however, had been lost while in wartime service and, as a result, the Canadian lake fleet was considerably depleted. With business conditions remaining good during the early 1920s, Canadian operators began to look far afield for hulls that might be returned to the lakes, some of the transplanted lakers having strayed far away during the hostilities.

MARISKA was purchased in 1923 by the Minto Trading Company of Toronto, George R. Donovan, manager, and she was then returned to the lakes. It seems entirely possible that J.F.M. Stewart may have had an interest in Minto Trading, but we cannot be certain of this. To prepare MARISKA for the canal passage, she was cut in two at Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal, but in the process she was also lengthened to 346.4 feet and her tonnage increased to 3072 Gross and 1874 Net. The two hull sections were then towed up to Lake Erie and were rejoined at Ashtabula by the Great Lakes Engineering Works. Renamed (b) KAMARIS, with the raised letters of her name on the bow simply rearranged to form the new name, she was placed in service during October, 1923. Apart from her lengthening, very little change of any other kind was made to the ship except that she was remasted once again. Her two light pole masts were removed and she was given two very heavy masts, each equipped with cargo booms. The foremast was well back off the forecastle and the main was stepped just forward of the after cabin.

We do not know what the colours of the Minto Trading Company were, but KAMARIS seems to have had a black hull with a forecastle that was also dark but of a different shade; it may have been green. The forward houses were white and the stack was black with a narrow white or silver band. Nevertheless, KAMARIS was not long to sport this livery, for the Minto Trading Company was placed in receivership in February, 1926, and Capt. James B. Foote of Toronto was appointed receiver and manager. (It is interesting to recall that Foote was the long-time manager of the Union Transit Company Ltd., of which George R. Donovan was president.) In May of 1926, the Chartered Trust and Executor Company of Toronto sold KAMARIS to Paterson Steamships Ltd., Fort William, Ontario.

The year 1926 was a very important one for the Paterson shipping interests, for it was that year that the company became a major influence in the Canadian shipping scene. Paterson Steamships Ltd. was incorporated in 1926 and immediately took over title to four canallers which had previously been owned by the predecessor firm, N. M. Paterson and Company Ltd. Seven upper lakers were purchased from the Interlake Steamship Company in March, 1926, KAMARIS was acquired in May, the canaller FORDONIAN (YUKONDOC) was purchased in August, four more upper lakers were bought from Interlake in October, and the year was completed in grand style with the ordering from a British shipyard of five canallers for delivery to Paterson in 1927.

Paterson immediately painted up KAMARIS in its own colours with a black hull, white forecastle and forward cabins, and a black stack with a large white letter 'P'. The steamer was also renamed in such a manner that she bore the same type of name that all Paterson ships, with only two exceptions, have carried since 1926. She became (c) QUEDOC (I), the name honouring the Province of Quebec where, ultimately, most of the grain carried by Paterson ships was unloaded (from canallers) for milling there or for the transshipment to salt water vessels for the long trip overseas.

QUEDOC, with barge PORTADOC lashed alongside, passes down Little Rapids Cut on June 17, 1956. Photo by J. H. Bascom.QUEDOC seems to have received a rebuild from the Port Arthur Shipbuilding Company Ltd. in 1931, but this reconstruction produced no outwardly visible changes in the steamer and was probably limited to plate renewal and, perhaps, to refurbishing of her cargo holds. The Great Depression was then seriously effecting lake shipping, however, and QUEDOC saw very little service during the next four years, operating only when cargoes were available. She spent the entire period from 1935 until 1939 laid up at Fort William.

QUEDOC was sent back to the Port Arthur shipyard in 1940 and was refitted in preparation for a return to service. She was soon back in the grain trade and there she would remain for the next eighteen years. She was not often seen on the lower lakes but generally was kept busy hauling grain into the Georgian Bay ports from the Lakehead. She could frequently be seen with a barge in tow, for Paterson owned four large cargo barges, COLLINGDOC (II), KENORDOC (II), PORTADOC (II) and OWENDOC. The task of towing these about was usually delegated to the four most powerful upper lakers in the fleet, BRICOLDOC, ALTADOC (II), PRINDOC (II) and QUEDOC. It was PORTADOC that seemed most frequently to be paired with QUEDOC and the two became a familiar sight together. QUEDOC occasionally ventured down to Lake Ontario with a cargo (sometimes storage) of soya beans for Victory Mills at Toronto, but her visits here were rare indeed.

QUEDOC had become something of an antique as she grew older, and Paterson never went to the trouble of modernizing her, no doubt realizing that it would only be for a limited period of time that a boat of her small size could be of use to the fleet. Nevertheless, someone did play games with her stack in later years. At some undetermined time, the top of her stack was lopped off, perhaps in an effort to make it a less dominant feature of her profile. The result seems not to have suited either, for a new section was added back, either late in 1952 or early in 1953, and the stack was returned to its former glory except for the fact that it could always be seen where the new piece had been joined.

As the 1950s drew on, it was evident to N. M. Paterson and Sons Ltd. (the corporate entity that had succeeded Paterson Steamships Ltd.) that the useful career of QUEDOC was almost at its close. It is doubtful that she would even have been retained that long had she not had the power for towing barges, but the barge era was also at an end. QUEDOC last operated in 1957, and was then laid up at Midland, Ontario, near the Midland-Simcoe grain elevator. She remained there in ordinary through the 1958 and 1959 seasons, accompanied for most of that time by her barge, PORTADOC.

H.S. & G. No. 1 is towed out the Toronto Eastern Gap by NIAGARA, July 8, 1960, en route to Whitby. Photo by the Editor. On November 25, 1959, QUEDOC was sold by Paterson through Marine Salvage Ltd., Port Colborne, to Holden Sand and Gravel Ltd., Toronto. She was towed almost immediately to Collingwood by the steam tug RUTH HINDMAN (I), and there she spent the winter. On April 28, 1960, the venerable vessel was renamed (d) H.S.& G. NO. 1 and she was, shortly thereafter, towed from Collingwood to Port Colborne by the motortug HELEN HINDMAN (II). From Port Colborne, she was fetched by H.J.D. NO. 1 and MACASSA, and it was on May 6, 1960, that she was towed into Toronto harbour and moored at the Harbour Brick Company's dock at the foot of Bathurst Street.

There, her owner proceeded to strip H.S.& G. NO. 1 of her masts and stack, and she was then towed to the Industrial Metal Company's dock on the north side of Toronto's ship channel, just outside the Cherry Street bridge, where her engines and boilers were removed. On July 8, 1960, she was towed out into Toronto Bay and anchored off Centre Island; that evening, Holden Sand and Gravel's steam sandsucker NIAGARA took her in tow, bound for Whitby where the old hull was to be converted into a gravel barge.

H.S.& G. NO. 1 arrived back in Toronto early in October, 1960, with a load of stone in her holds. She was, however, never again to carry another cargo. She proved to be unstable as a barge, perhaps because of the removal of her heavy machinery, and her licence was withdrawn. She was laid up in the north east corner of the Toronto turning basin and was gradually unloaded over the next month. In late November, she was towed from the basin and was moored on the west wall of the Spadina Avenue slip. She spent the winter there and, in the spring, was sold to International Metals Ltd. On April 15. 1961, H.S. & G. NO. 1 was once again taken in tow by NIAGARA, and this time she was delivered to the Hamilton yard of the Steel Company of Canada Ltd., where she was soon dismantled for scrap.

The last year of QUEDOC's life was really rather sad, for even though she had retained her fine lines and her handsome forward cabin, she looked very much bedraggled, and the removal of her masts and stack had robbed her of her distinctive profile. As well, she was a ship that always rode very high in the bows when light and was most photogenic when she did so; once her machinery was removed, however, she floated with a peculiar trim. Nevertheless, she had a good life of slightly more than seventy years and she had served all of her owners faithfully and well.

Interestingly enough, she was the longest-lived of all of the 1890-91 series of boats built for the Minnesota Steamship Company. MANOLA was wrecked in 1924 on Christian Island as (b) MAPLEDAWN and those parts that were salvaged in 1942 were never used but were later scrapped. MARINA stranded in Georgian Bay in 1917 as (b) GEORGE A. GRAHAM and her remains were cut up where they lay in 1937. MARUBA was abandoned at Cleveland about 1930 and, after her upperworks were cut away, her hull was buried in landfill. MASABA went to salt water in 1917 and never returned, having been sold to French owners in 1920. MATOA, as (c) HUGUENOT, was scrapped at Sturgeon Bay in 1937.

Captain Augustus R. Hinckley - Lake Ontario Mariner

by Richard F. Palmer

(continued from the February issue)

This is how HARVEY J. KENDALL looked in Hall colours, shortly before her acquisition by Capt. Augustus R. Hinckley. The last freighter owned by Capt. Augustus R. Hinckley was the wooden steamer HARVEY J. KENDALL (U.S.96166), 141.7 x 30.9 x 9.2, 398 Gross, 264 Net, which was built at Marine City, Michigan, in 1892. The captain bought her from the George Hall Corporation of Ogdensburg in 1930 to replace the lost HINCKLEY. (Actually, the sale was probably in 1929 - Ed.) HARVEY J. KENDALL was a rather odd-looking boat and was nearing the end of her days when she was acquired, for her hull was badly deteriorated. The following story of the last days of the KENDALL was related in 1973 by the captain's nephew, Theodore Hinckley, who sailed aboard her on her last trip, during which she sank in the Cardinal Canal.

"This is what I remember of my trip on HARVEY J. KENDALL under Capt. Gus Hinckley. This was the last civilian contract he obtained to pick up Coast Guard buoys; the U.S.C.G. took over this duty the following year. Uncle Gus stopped at the Cape (Vincent) about the middle of December, 1930. Some of his crew had quit and gone home, and he lacked a couple of deckhands and a coalpasser. So George Cody, Earl Snyder and myself hired on to go downriver with him and pick up buoys as far as Waddington, the last in American waters.

"Cody was fireman, Snyder and I deckhands. The old KENDALL had a high steeple compressed steam boiler which had a lot of leaks round about, but still worked. The engineer was Woods, of Alexandria Bay. He was a big, fat guy, took about a 52" waist. Cody's relief coalpasser was called 'Pipe Boiler' Paddy, from Oswego, built like Cody, tall and lean, waist about 32"; he wore a pair of overalls that the engineer had discarded, but wrapped around once again. We all got a bang out of seeing him with that outfit on. He was almost as dirty with coal dust as were the overalls.

"The hoist man was Jimmie Cree, an Indian from Morristown, a hard worker and a hard drinker, too. The mate was from Alex(andria) Bay, but I forget his name. Aunt Lydia was the captain's wife and also served as the cook. He couldn't find any other cook for the trip and was cutting the expenses as much as he could because he had bid too low on the contract.

"Uncle Gus had tied up at the depot dock in Cape Vincent and, about December 15, we shoved off and sailed to pick up the buoys. Earl Snyder could not go, as his father, J.P. Snyder, had refused him permission, so I was deckhand and coalpasser combined. We picked up buoys all the way down river and unloaded them at Ogdensburg. Then we got buoys from the harbour there and went down river to Waddington and got the last of them. It had turned very cold the night we left the 'Burg (Ogdensburg), and it was making ice in the canals and bays, so we ran the river and, with the current, made good time to retrieve the last buoys at Waddington.

"My duties were to work on deck while we were taking buoys aboard and to pass coal onto the fireroom floor while underway. The meals were nothing to talk about with any praise, but Auntie did the best she could. A roast beef went a long way; first a roast, then hash, and finally soup. Everything else was the same; a ham was served about four different ways and the bone ended up in pea soup.

"I don't think anybody undressed fully at night. I know that I didn't. Our quarters were too cold but that didn't freeze out the bugs. They were in full power. The blankets and bunks were loaded with them. I left my socks and underwear on, so I only got bitten around my wrists, ankles and neck. Little red spots showed up every morning, but I was so tired at night that I slept anyway.

"We had seven spar buoys, three nun and two big flasher buoys aboard when we finished up at Waddington and started back for the 'Burg about the middle of the last day. Uncle Gus figured that we could make it back by working the eddies along the shore out of the direct current. He was right, except for one thing. Somehow the draft damper in the stack had become loose and the outside balance arm showed the draft wide open whereas it was actually only half-opened. The set bolts had slipped, as we later discovered.

"We knew it was making ice in the canal and, as KENDALL was built of wood, we didn't want to chance it. So we started upriver bucking the current. It seemed to go pretty well; I was passing coal and could look out the ash-chute hole and get a sighting on shore. Engineer Woods kept at Cody, the fireman, for more steam and Cody kept after me for more coal. Finally, I told Cody to get a sight on the shore; we were just holding our own and that was all. The captain was whistling for more steam but we just could not make it. He swung in nearer to shore to catch an eddy and hit bottom just like three steps (bump, bump, bump) and there we stayed. We tried to reverse and then tried everything else, but to no avail. Capt. Gus had the idea to put the hatch cover across the jolly boat and have myself and Jim Cree take it out in the river astern to act as a keg anchor, but this did not pan out because both the mate and I rebelled. If the lifeboat had tipped over when we dumped the anchor, we would both have been goners, for the water was ice-cold. So we had a farmer call Kingston, Ontario, to contact the tug SALVAGE QUEEN to come and get us off.

"Next morning, SALVAGE QUEEN arrived and dropped anchor above the KENDALL, then paid out cable until we got it from her stern. The she took up on her forward winch until she was half-way to the upper anchor. She started both winches and, using herself as one big winch, pulled us off the rocks. All the power the QUEEN had was in her winches; her engine was not very powerful and she couldn't buck the current, so we both dropped back and entered the canal below Cardinal. We tied up there to inspect the hull, but no bad leak showed where we had been on the rocks. Uncle Gus said that it was ledges and no boulders, so just the keel and forefoot were hit, and the hull was not damaged.

"The two captains talked things over and decided that SALVAGE QUEEN would lead, the KENDALL to follow, as there was about three inches of ice in the canal. Meanwhile, Uncle Gus had Woods and Cody check the damper in the stack and they found that the set bolts had loosened. It was adjusted and okayed. SALVAGE QUEEN started out but, even though she had a steel hull, she could not make it as the ice was too thick. New ice was tough, so she called Kingston for SALVAGE PRINCE, for she had lots of propeller power and an icebreaking bow. Unfortunately, she couldn't get there until the next day.

"Gus didn't want to wait and said we'd try it, as KENDALL had power enough but was only ironed (sheathed) part-way on the bow, which he figured was enough. So we started out of the lock for a ways but then new ice started. We'd make 200 or 300 feet, then back and ram it again. The poor old ship took a beating when we hit the ice but she would do well, her deck humping up and down like in an ocean roll, then stop, back, and hit again. About a quarter-mile outside of Cardinal, Cody called me to pass more coal. I stepped off the fireroom floor into about four inches of icewater in the bunker.

"I hollered to Cody 'better get me a pair of rubber boots as there's water in the bunker'. The engineer and Cody came in with a lantern and you should have seen the engineer's face when he showed the light in the bunker. The coal bunkers were in the stern near the fantail and, every time we backed, the stern would hit hard in the ice, and that had started the seams leaking. It was spouting 'pretty good' into the bunkers. The engineer notified Uncle Gus, who stopped her and held her into the ice.

"But nothing could be seen above water. The bilge had already been sounded and the water was gaining at a good rate even though we had two pumps going. Gus decided that, if we could get to Cardinal, we could stop and lay up, as it was getting dark. We made four more lunges at the ice and came to Dodge's coal dock outside Cardinal. Gus called for me and I jumped onto the dock; it was icy but I hung on. He whistled to go ahead and I thought that he had left me, but it was just to break ice so he could get closer to the dock. Finally, he backed up and I took a line and made fast fore and aft.

"By this time, the old KENDALL was making water pretty fast and it took a lot of coal to keep up steam. We had a four-inch bilge pump and two two-inch steam siphons going full blast, as well as the generator, and still we needed steam for the engine. The only way I could get coal on the fireroom floor was to rake it out of the bunker with the big fire rake. After we tied up, the water was sounded for depth in the canal and we found that if she did sink, the upper works and the top of the spray rail between fore and aft would be out of water, even though the keel was on the bottom.

"Gus had the engine shut down and he told Woods to keep the pumps going full. He said that he would be back inside of an hour, and away he went into the night. It was really dark by this time. I got a pile of coal ready for Cody and he said to me 'It won't be long now'. But there were still rats in the galley and we wouldn't go under as we were tied to the dock. I couldn't help but laugh, even though it was bad luck for poor old Uncle Gus.

"The water started to creep up on the fireroom floor. Woods told Cody to pull the fire, as the icewater would blow up the boiler if it was hot. So Cody dumped the fire and we climbed topside. We all got our gear together and were standing by as the pumps and generator started slowing down for lack of steam. Then we heard a team of horses on the run coming down the road. People were yelling. Into the coal shed and onto the dock came Uncle Gus and a farmer riding a wagon of horse and cow manure mixed with straw, this just as the lights dimmed and the steam siphons quit. It was kind of gruesome, the KENDALL groaning and settling. The only light came from the flashing tops of the buoys which stuck out of the hatches. They bumped the deck as the old boat went down, but stayed in the hold. Of course, Uncle Gus was mad as a hornet but Woods told him that he was afraid of blowing the boiler if water hit the hot grates. The engineer knew what to do, as he had his bag packed in ten minutes and came off the ship all dressed up. He had been ready long before.

"Maybe I had better explain the load of straw and manure that Uncle Gus got. In the old days of wooden vessels, if a bad leak developed in the seams under water, the caulking usually had become loose or was pushed through. If the boat wasn't in too much current or under way, sometimes wet sawdust or manure with lots of straw mixed in would, when dropped over the side, settle along the hull and be sucked into the leaking seams. This would lessen or stop a leak so that temporary repairs could be made. But I don't think that forty loads would have saved the old KENDALL.

"Uncle Gus had me swing down to the galley wall through a hole topside by the top of the boiler to retrieve a clock. We took handlights and went forward and got Aunt Lydia out of the captain's cabin where she had been all this time. We went on the dock, into the coal shed, where we called Cardinal and had cars come to get us. Uncle Gus did not have much cash on him, but borrowed some from Mr. Dodge who owned the coal dock, and he gave us each $20 on what he owed us. The spar and nun buoys were floating on deck, held there by the fareboard which was just out of water, and the lights were flashing on the big gas buoys. That's how we left the HARVEY J. KENDALL.

"The crew took a bus to Prescott and then Ogdensburg. We had to wait at the 'Burg for a train to Watertown... Cody and I left Watertown for Cape Vincent and the others went home. When I got home, I told Laulie, my wife, that I had better strip off my clothes on the outside porch and, while I did that, to start the tub running, as I badly needed a hot bath. It was cold that day but we had to fumigate my clothes and other gear just the same. I got home three days before Christmas.

"The only lives lost in the sinking of the KENDALL were a lot of bedbugs. The Lighthouse Service, which had charge of all navigation aids at that time, got the buoys and took them to Ogdensburg. The following spring, Uncle Gus, Jim Cree and a couple of other men sealed off the leaks with canvas and lumber and pumped the KENDALL until they raised her so that she could be beached and repaired. She was brought to the breakwall at Cape Vincent but the steamboat hull and boiler inspectors of Oswego would not give Uncle Gus clearance to sail the lake and would only permit operation on the river.

"At the same time, engineer Woods put a lien against her for past wages, so Gus gave up. She was stripped of most of the removable items of any value, and Wilfred Dodge towed her to Button Bay, where he ran her up on the south corner of the marsh. That winter and the following spring (1932), the KENDALL drifted out and down the bay. She got as far as Perch Cove, out from Home's cottage, and sank there. Her remains still lie there in about fifteen feet of water."

In 1917, Hinckley had purchased a farm of more than 100 acres in the town of Parishville, St. Lawrence County. On this land was a lot of timber that he expected to cut and use in his marine work. In the early 1930s, he finally moved there from Oswego. "I'm keeping the farm for my old age", he used to say, "but Mrs. Hinckley asks me 'When does old age begin?'" Shortly before his death, he was planning to purchase a barge and continue his salvage work, for he yearned to return again to the water where he had spent most of his life. But on June 27, 1936, he passed away. His obituary in the Watertown Daily Times noted that "he died not on a battered schooner, plowing against strong headwinds, but on a quiet farm in the heart of his own north country".

Thus ended the illustrious career of one of Lake Ontario's noted marine personalities, an active career that spanned some 66 of his 80 years.

(Ed Note: Our sincere thanks to Richard Palmer for his interesting account of Gus Hinckley's shipping activities. Space limitations required that we edit it rather severely and we were forced to omit some interesting parts of "Ted" Hinckley's narrative. Nevertheless, we hope that our readers have enjoyed this small segment of Lake Ontario's marine history.)

Lay-up Listings

Erie: BADGER STATE, CONSUMERS POWER, STEWART J. CORT, LEWIS WILSON FOY, ARTHUR B. HOMER, JOHNSTOWN, LAKEWOOD, LEHIGH, NIAGARA, DAY PECKINPAUGH, PRESQUE ISLE, J. S. ST. JOHN, SPARROWS POINT.

Lauzon: BEAVERCLIFFE HALL, MAPLEBRANCH.

Louiseville: GLENVALLEY, MANOIR, CAPT. T.W. MORRISON, JEAN SIMARD (all tugs) plus EIDER and ferry LA MARJOLAINE.

Bay City: AMOCO ILLINOIS (delete from previous list for Sturgeon Bay).

Alpena: S.T. CRAPO, LEWIS G. HARRIMAN.

Green Bay: J. B. FORD, PAUL H. TOWNSEND.

Montreal: Add to previous list - RIMOUSKI.

Sorel: Add to previous list - ALLEGE, FERBEC, FORT LAUZON, N. B. McLEAN, ST. LAWRENCE, SKUA.

We have received no further listings and, accordingly, our coverage of the various winter fleets is concluded for this year. To those additional members who corresponded concerning lay-ups, we extend our appreciation to Tim Blackwell, Jim Gerger, Robert Ireland, James Michael, Ed Middleton, Gene Onchulenko, and Ed Schwartz. To those members who live near ports for which a list did not appear, we are sorry that we did not hear from you.

To take the place of additional current lay-up listings, we present the following item which was culled by Ron Beaupre from the Owen Sound daily newspaper for December 6, 1888:

"Of steam vessels, we have the ATHABASCA, ALBERTA and CAMPANA of the C.P.R. line, the CARMONA and CAMBRIA of the Canada Lake Superior Transit Company, the WILLIAM M. ALDERSON of the Georgian Bay Transit Company, Cook and Company supply steamer METEOR, Government steamers BAYFIELD and CRUISER, the steam barge KINCARDINE, tugs ATKENS, SISKIWIT, NELLIE REID, ALPHA and HEATHERBELLE, and the steam yacht MOCKING BIRD. It is a remarkable fact that there is not a sailing vessel in the harbour, nor is it likely that there will be any this winter."

Annual Dinner Meeting

Please remember the Annual Dinner Meeting, with speaker Lorne Joyce, which will be held at the Ship Inn on Saturday, May 2nd. To secure your reservation (tickets for out-of-town members will be held at the door rather than mailed to them), please send $12.75 per person to the Secretary (same address as the Editor) so that it will reach us prior to the date of the April meeting. It should be a most enjoyable evening and we do hope that many of our members will be able to attend. Please reserve soon, however, for space is limited.

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Scanner, v. 13, n. 6 (March 1981)


Meetings; The Editor's Notebook; Captain Augustus R. Hinckley - Lake Ontario Mariner; Lay-up Listings; Annual Dinner Meeting