THE MARINE RECORD. 10 a eee 00S Se Se AMPLITUDES. The following approximate amplitudes of the Sun’s rising will be given each week in this column during the season of navigation. A second bearing may be taken by compass at sunset by reversing the bearings given for the nearest latitude, as the change in declination for afew hours makes buta slight difference in the true bearing of the Sun’s rising and setting: LAKE BRIE AND S. END LAKE MICHIGAN, LAT. 42° N. Sunrise. Bearing (degrees). Bearing (points). IIE ADA ae aisregpere E. 29°. N. NE. by E. % E. WEAN OL aries ey ss E. 30° N NE. by E. % E. LAKE ONTARIO, S. END HURON AND CENTER LAKE MICH- IGAN, LAT. 44° N. Sunrise. Bearing (degrees). Bearing (points). May 25.043. ei He 302 Ne NE. by KE. % EH. May SE A eae B.'31% New’ + iz NE. by KE. % E. Sunrise. Bearing (degrees). Bearing (points). May Zo, eset ee Ky. 31° N. NE. by E. 4 E. Diy Ole aS. FE: 33° N NE. by E. % E. LAKE SUPERIOR, LAT. 48° W. Sunrise. Bearing (degrees). Bearing (points). Mayi2oey a tania ote Ky.) 32° Nz NE. by EK. % E. May Sis. 3hiel ine KE. 34° N NE. by E. tween the observed bearing will be the variation for the locality. Should there be any deviation on the course the vessel is heading at the time of taking the bearing, the result after the variation is applied will be the amount of deviation on that course. rr + PAPER SAILS. An innovation in yachting circles is now being talked of, nothing less than sails made of compressed paper, the sheets being cemented and riveted together in such way as to form a smooth and strong seam. It appears that the first process of manufacturing consists in pre- paring the pulp in the regular way, to a ton of which is added one pound of bichromate of potash, 25 pounds of glue, 32 pounds of alum, 1% pounds of soluble glass and 40 pounds of prime tallow, these ingredients being thor- oughly mixed with the pulp. Next, the pulp is made into sheets by regular paper making machinery, and two sheets are pressed together with a glutinous com- pound between, so as to retain the pieces firmly, mak- ing the whole practically homogenious. The next operation is quite important and requires a specially built machine of great power, which is used in compressing the paper from a thick, sticky sheet to a very thin, tough one. The now solid sheet is run through a bath of sulphuric “acid to which 10 per cent, of distilled water has -been added, from which it emerges to pass between glass rollers, then through a bath of ammonia, then clear water and finally through felt rollers, after whichit is dried and polished between heated metal cylinders. The paper resulting from this process is in sheats of ordinary width and thickness of cotton duck, it is elastic, air-tight, durable, light, and possessed of other needed qualifications to make it available for light sail making. The mode of putting the sheets together is by having a split on the edges of the sheet or cloth so as to admit the edge of the other sheet. When the split is closed, cemented and riveted or sewed it closes completely and firmly, and makes a neater seam than a sewed one. ED oe A COAST LINE WATERWAY. ‘The torpedo boat Cushing is now on her way from Washington to KeyWest, under instructions to make the trip as much as possible through inland waters. The French have made experiments, it is said, in transport- ing small boats by coast railways; but our torpedo boats are all, with the exception of the Stiletto,.of the heavier classes. It is a source of strength to possess this inter- jor coast line of waterways, natural or artificial, ex- tending through hundreds of miles. Looking at the route from Narrangansett Bay to Fer- - nandina, first, there is Long Island Sound, withits ap- proach to New York harbor; then Raritan Bay, the Rar- itan River, and canal already shown to be practicable for torpedo boats to the Delaware; then down the Dela- ware and through the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal to Chesapeake Bay; then down that bay to Norfolk, and by canal again to the well known series of sounds on the North Carolina coast. Fromthe mouth of the Neuse to Cape Fear, perhaps there would need to be some deep- ening of existing waterways required. Then comes the - channels, open sea, for a short distance only, and then more sounds, bays, and channels, along South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. In the Gulf there are plenty of bayous and lagoons along the coasts of Louisiana and Texas. : When the U.S. torpedo fleet becomes strong enough for the definite assignment of it to sections, it will be time to see what facilities can be afforded, at slight ex- pense, for more quickly establishing inland communi- cation between the ports of each district. For the most important one, including the Narragansett Bay and Long Island ports, New York and its subsidiary cities, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Norfolk and Hampton Roads, the work is already done. De NAVAL PROMOTIONS. ; The promotions in the navy following Admiral Mead’s retirement are as follows: Commodore Lester A. Beardslee, commanding the Pacific squadron, to be rear admiral; John A. Howell to be commodore; Commander Nicol Ludlow to be cap- tain, Chapman C. Tod to be commander; Gottfried Blocklinger to be lieutenant commander; Leroy M. Gar- rett, to be lieutenant and Ensign Wilfred B. Hoggatt to be lieutenant, junior grade. rr WASTE OF WATER. . BUFFALO, May 21, 1895. 19 the Liditor of The Marine Record: The action of the Federal government ought to be to stop the outflow of the lakes instead of doing such a vast amount of dredging, for if we con- tinue deepening we may soon be on a level with the sea. My opinion is that we ought not only to place adam at Niagara but also at the mouth of Detroit River and the ‘‘Soo.’’ Let the experts get to work and see where a decade hence will land us if you open up the Hennepin Canal, use water power for manufacturing and keep on with the natural increase of population. ‘Ihe only alter- native that I can see will be to have lock gates at several points and practically make canals of the low water The deeper you dredge.the lower the levels M. B.S. aE + BABBIT’S IMPROVED ANCHOR. (ILT.USTRATED. ) will be. In these days of patents and improved changes on ground tackle the Babbitt anchor should come in for a share of notice due to the generally enhanced holding power of later inventions. The Babbitt anchor is adapted to the row-boat as well as the largest tonnage afloat, it can never foul as both flukes are always buried and being ‘stockless there is nothing for the cable to sweep foul of. Another point which the Babbit seems to have the advantage in is the fact that the crown is so constructed that if the anchor falls on the side the slightest strain on the cable brings both flukes into a holding position. The Babbitt is a guaranteed anchor and from the manufacturer’s standpoint will never fail to do all that is claimed for it. The American Ship Windlass Co. vouches for its adaptibility and are now making the anchor under patent rights which is a sufficient en- dorsement of its good work. All reference to the Bab- bitt patent anchor will be fully explained by addressing the makers at Providence, R. I. ED + ore AN OLD CHARTER. Capt. John Prindiville of Chicago finds the following old document in his possession, which, although it only dates twenty years ago reads ratherancient. ‘‘Shipped by the Grace of God in good order and well conditioned by Messrs. Steel & Craig of Glasgow. In and upon the good ship or vessel called the Pam- lico, whereof is master for this present voyage, (Hayden) and now lying in the harbor of Troon bound to Bayou Teche, to say, 495 tons best large screened Troon coal, being marked and numbered as per margin and are to be delivered in the like good order and well conditioned at the aforesaid port of Bayou Teche. (The act of God, the Queen’s Enemies, Fire, and all and every other dangers of the seas, rivers and navigation of whatso- ever nature and kind soever excepted) unto John B. Lyon, Esq., or to his assigns he, or they paying freight for the said goods—with primage and average accus- tomed. In witness whereof the master or purser of the said ship or vessel hath affirmed to three bills of lading all of this tenor and date, the one of which being ac- complished, the others to stand void, and so God send the good ship to her desired port in safety. Amen. Dated in Troon Dec. 11, 1876. H. M. HAyvDEN.’’ With the bill of lading is attached receipts from Steel & Craig, Glasgow, to John B. Lyon, Chicago owner of the brigantine Pamlico for £205 16s2 being the price of the cargo and insurance thereon. A 9 a 6 cc NOTES. S. I. Kimpat, chief of the U.S. life saving service, advertises for bids on fifteen Beebe-McLellan life-boats, to be delivered in New York. Full particulars regarding forms of proposals, etc., can be obtained by addressing the department at Washington.—Shipowning. As an indication of the volume of the northwest lum- ber trade, it may be quoted that Alger Smith & Co., of Detroit have recently invested $65,000 in standing timber in Minnesota. Another deal of the same firm aggre- gated $55,000 and steps are being taken to close a further purchase of $16,500 worth of timber yielding acreage. This makes a total outlay of $136,500 for timber lands. EDWARD S. CLARK & Co., designers and builders of steam yachts and launches, water tube boilers and triple expansion engines have removed their entire plant from Freeport St., to Harrison Square, Boston, Mass., where they will work principally for the marine trade and at- tend to all stationary orders. ‘This well known and es- tablished firm and well worthy of a call marine inter- ests. THE new composite built light-ship for coast service will be fitted with the Watkins & Davis type of boilers 14 feet long, 8 feet wide and 8 feet 6 inches high from under side of furnace leg to the top of shell, 8 feet in diameter, the Keasbey & Mattison ‘‘Magnesia’’ cover- ing being named in the specifications for boilers and pipe covering. ‘The electric light plant will consist of two of the General Elec- tric Co.’s marine sets known as M.P. 4-8-550. She is also to be equipped with 5 by 4-inch double cylinder Sturtevant blowing engine. In the semi-annual circular issued by H. KE. Moss & Co., of Liverpool, relative to the conditions existing in steamship circles, it is noted the shipbuilding statistics for 1894 shows 1,046,508 tons added to the merchant fleet, but allowing for losses during the year, the net increase is only 432,000 tons for the year. Prices for building steamers remain abnormally low, in fact they have never been lower; some yards are closed and nearly all the builders are most anxious for work. Own- ers of old tonnage are at last realizing the uselessness .of holding on to their property, and consequently about 100,000 tons out of at least 500,000 tons available, have already been broken up. It is absolutely impossible for such tonnage to be worked ata profit, or to compete any longer with modern light-draught triple steamers carrying, in many instances, double the dead-weight on the same draught of water. How truly the foregoing conditions fit into the present lake practice we can leave our readers to judge, yet, we can say, that if the extract had been written in connection with lake steam- ers, instead of the Liverpool coast and ocean trade the statement could not have been more pertinent in its ap- plication. THE schooner Vega is one of the oldest vessels afloat on the lakes, having been built at Erie, Pa., in ’56. She was formerly known asthe St. Paul and A. J. Covill Prior to her coming out this season, she was thoroughly rebuilt at Milwaukee, where she is owned.