Maritime History of the Great Lakes

Marine Record (Cleveland, OH), May 23, 1895, p. 6

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6 UNITED STATES AND CANADIAN CANALS. In the May issue of ‘‘Notices to Mariners’’ for the Great Lakes, the Hydrographic Office, Bureau of Navi- gation, Navy Department publishes the following tables of canals tributary to lake waters: THE MARINE RECORD. north of France about the close of his reign, and a ves- sel was described as-carrying so many ‘‘tuns’’ or huge casks of wine. It is from this that the word tonnage is derived, and this goes far to explain the basis of ad- measurement, which allows 100 cubic feet of space of CANALS OF THE UNITED STATES IN THE TRIBUTARY WATERS OF THE GREAT LAKES. The first speaker didn’t seem to appreciate this unex- pected support, for he muttered: ‘‘Humph! They did, eh? Well, how did you know they were the same mos- — quitoes, eh?”’ “How did I know?” repeated the other, with a chuckle. “How didI know? Why, they all had on canvas over- alls.’’—Fyvom the ‘Editor's Drawer,” in Harper's Magazine for December, Z rd eee L h Heights Locks: No, Name of Canal. Waters Connected. Terminal Points. se neat of AUDIBILITY OF SOUND IN FOGS. " i bridges.| wy * , o. |Length.|Width|Depth|Lock’ge e ; 4 . . s Major R. Livermore, Corps of Engineers, U.S. A., a : ; j : Miles. Feet. Feet, | Fect,| Feet.| Feet. Sas made a report upon fog signal experiments and the Tt GAM plains coos cas pgs toe Hudson River and Lake|West Troy—Whitehall ...... 66 1 a ee aaa 110 18 5 150 ‘ 5 ee Champlain. influence of atmospheric conditions on sound from 2 NOSMIE SOR acanns alite vi eisinibie of Lake Ontario and Erie Canal]Oswego—Syracuse ......... 38 12 29 110 18 7 155 ‘ £ 5 ° SOP Re easy tacucn cass ere Lake Erie and Hudson River|Buffalo—Albany .,... 352 18 12 72 110 18 7 572 which we take the following extracts : , : A OW One, Sends ets 68'S cas Lake Erie and Ohio River, ,|Cleveland—Portsmouth 309 10 144 90 14 4 886 The sound reaches the ear through the air, and the 5 |Miami and Erie ...,........ Lake Erie and Ohio River,. Toledo—Gincinnati 250 10 97 90 14 4 796 E i ; i i ; a 6 siege and Michigan ..... Lake Michigan and Missis-|Chicago—LaSalle,.., 96 i 18 110 18 5.5 chief causes of irregularity are found in the varying ~ sippi River, 3 i . ri < % 7 (PRL ela ie te Mississippi| Illinois River and Mississippi| Rock Island—Hennepin, ... 17 15 39 170 | 365 7 302 velocity and temperature of its ae aie River (Hennepin) ...-..., iver. sound wave to be reflected or refracted. It has been 8 ;taSanitary and Ship CanaljLake Michigan and Des-|Lake Michigan—Lockport, . 34 05 22 Oe et aee Pal ca tines i ; joPChicagod , 2e..2 PAG plaines River. : : ; stated repeatedly, and confirmed by sufficient observa- 4 A At ees Augen ey pucilake Mighs Ape on, Beka.y! eons. -- Poet siete idacie det iets ainectnaaad fatal esa tions, that fog, rain, snow, etc., do not of themselves : 10 éSault Ste, Marie (St Mary’s|St. Mary’s:Rivera ts. ainea's 4 Sault Ste; Marie. ....0..5... 2 Draw. | 1 Old) 515 60 16 18 obstruct the passage of sound. They may tend to in- A RIVED) Cec sr sete naics sit ss : +Draw. [tL New| +800 |t100 | 721.5 18 TERS Bees ¢ 3 ? 11 Portage Lake Ship Canal. .|LakeSuperior and Keweenaw|Houghton, Mich.—Portage. 2 SORTS She, ie So hase ad eceeees crease or diminish its intensity, according as they affect 3 | Bay. the temperature or velocity of the air. *Locks will pass vessels of 17 feet beam, 103 feet length and 4’ 8” draft, +Under construction. A ship channel connecting the waters of the Great Lakes between Chicago, Duluth and Buffalo, giving channel 300 feet wide, 20 to 21 feet depth, will be com- pleted by Nov. 30, 1895, A canal at Portage, Wisconsin, connecting Fox River with Wisconsin River. This canal is two miles in length with a depth of 3 feet. The following is a route from Green Bay to the Mississippi: Green Bay through Fox River; a series of waterways called Kagle Rivers ; the canal at Portage; the Wisconsin River to the a Least depth 22 feet, narrowest channel 101 feet to be widened hereafter. 6 Only 14 6 feet can be carried in canal, A canal and series of connecting waterways from Duluth, Minnesota, to the Mississippi River are pro- posed. Portage Lake and Lake Superior Canals, Michigan. Total length 24 miles. One low drawbridge at Han- cock, open space 68-feet. The channel has a depth of 16 feet and bottom width of 70 feet, except about 800 feet of channel in Portage River, which is 15 feet 8 inches deep. No tolls are charged for the passage of any of the above-named canals, excepting Ohio, Miami and Erie, and Illinois and Michigan. Mississippi. CANALS OF CANADA IN THE TRIBUTARY WATERS OF THE GREAT LAKES. Sound is generally transmitted better in cold than in warm air, becatise it is more homogeneous; for the same reason it is generally transmitted better through a fog, because when the air is near the point of satura- tion a slight change in temperature might cause so much evaporation or condensation as to reduce its range by one-half. Snow falling through the air acts ina similar way to check the minute currents and eddies. Sound travels only about one hundred times as fast‘as a lively wind, and the wave length is as great as the width of the aperture of the trumpet; accordingly it is not at all thrown out in the direction of the axis, as the rays of light from a lens or reflector, but spreads out on Sound travels a little more with 14 feet of water over the sills for the entire navi- gation. | rr 1 oe TUNS—TONNAGE. ‘The system of tonnage admeasurement, which now shows almost nothing in relation to the carrying capa- city of a vessel, dates back to the time of Edward III, of England. There was a brisk wine trade with the you know, in fifteen minutes they had stripped it of every inch of canvas, and left the masts bare as bean-poles!’’ We held up our hands in deprecation at this tale, when another of the party exclaimed: ‘‘Well, don’t be aston- ished. I can vouch for that. It was only a week after that I was on a trip along the coast, and the same swarm of mosquitoes came out after us.’’ as Locks. every side by diffraction. a ee ery i ene oi ness No. Name of Canal. Waters Connected. Terminal Points. of Ganals. eras ee wen ene wines pe ae res bese Number, |Length,| Width. | Depth | Lockage. The audibility of a fog signal depends not only upon Bac teen S| eee ere eS peunentto a. the instrument that generates the sound and the influ- a Statute Miles. | Feet. | Feet Feet. Feet. aoe Bata wet { laLachine.............. ....{st. Lawrence River, 25... Montreal—Lachine......... 8.25 5 270 45 14 45 cnees that affect the transmission to the BES oe where it 2 {Soulanges, Hs Sor awe Cascades Pt.—McDonald Pt 14 5 270 45 14 325 is observed, but also upon the position of the observer 3 |Beauharnoi ne Or cue cane elochville—Valleyfield,.., 11.25 9 200 45 9 82 5 is i i ¢ i ari ; pale Sa alae “4 ie Pe eute Inimaaiee leding ree ; Ay ee a ee the disturbing influences that affect his hearing. t BoleeanPokme ee ‘3 ae RarrancvPh bes Avovon” 75 SP a ears 45 9 4 00 little attention is generally paid to these circum- 6 Rapier Pinte res: eee « Cen et Bape Hit Hata Hay... id! 2 200 45 9 11.5 stances. Our observers once noted that a signal was Hi: Waalopsics: suuae icv avanwak sae ss i) ieee ote roquois—Galops Rapid,... 7.625 3 200 45 9 15.5 repeatedly heard much farther in running away from it & |St, Ours Lock 222312222202, Bihelied River... 1. {St OUIS ae es uss eee ots 125 1 200 450 (ico 5 ae oe y pMeiectiy es. OER Sere eT Chambly Basin—St. Johns. 12 9 118 blag 74 they, In approachine, We an dualyels Of ee Ole 10 |St. Anne’s Lock... ....,...,|Ottawa River, ........6s. 005 Si Sutles. eaatics street: 195 1 900 45 9 3 tions showed that in the former case the vessel was run- or 8: his PRG, often Sevn observed that a fog signal can Be 1S PRideaw 7 Ae Bee Ses Ottawa River and Lake On-|Ottawa—Kingston,......... Navigable 85 up 134 33 5 | 292.25 rise 1M. t has often been observed that a fog signal can be s saa oa, Rideau aleiver water 126 ca ey dn} 165,50 fall heard better at the masthead than on the deck of a ves- and Lakes), sel. This may be due to several causes; where the , (Perth Branch of Rideau):,.|Lake Rideau,.............. Beveridge’s Bay—Perth ,... 6 2 184 32 5.6 aT . Bec ‘ : 14 |aMurray.......... gee Lake Ontario and Bay of|Presque Isle Harbor—Bay of 5 16 Oat nel aay eral cnigrelccaere ee care eee - ia megs oa md ere ee signal inaudible Quinte, Quinte. n ck at less an ards distance it has been T6e Weeds Sitch ; canines woes os Lake Ontario and Lake Erie |Port Dalhousie—P. Colborne 26 75 25 270 45 "14 326.75 noted that the audibility ocreeeucut increased in pee 16 |Sault Ste. Marie ........... St, Mary’s River... :.0..... Sault Ste, Marie,...........] 3-4 mOnee 1 900 - 60 Pil 18 aloft. On the other hand, ata iatace of several pe : } approaches, ¥ ? ’ ae —— = = : ————— the effect of a few feet in elevation is comparatively in- oe to fluctuation in the Summit Level, by reason of high winds on a Only 12 feet can be carried between locks. significant; whereas the observer at the masthead is PUndet coastiuction. 6 Only 4% feet can be carried between locks. farther removed from the splashing of the waves or the — : ‘e e aes sound of the engine. ee ee a aaah known as the ‘‘St. Law oo 6 and 7 are also known as the Williamsburg Mariners differ so widely in capacity that rules which . Nos. 8 and 9 as the ‘“‘Richelieu and Lake Champlain The smallest dimensions are given for locks. Tolls aes PES definite Teeteae nee a opened te ystem.” 24% cents for registered ton. KEE : : ane 2 Nos. 10, 11, 12 and 13, as the ‘‘Montreal, Ottawa and All Canadian Canals are closed on Sunday, from 6 ies ia See ones ee oe = pesmi Kingston Route.” a.m. to9 p.m ’ are 0. ten arassed by cares and duties that divert their i : os Sees attention for the moment, and in case of disaster the ai most conflicting accounts have been given of the aber- It will be noted that the St. Lawrence system of practical use for stowing cargo for each registered ton, rations of the audibility of fog signals. Seamen should canals are 200 by 45 with a depth of 9 feet, and that ves- deducting the cabins, crews’ quarters and machine aves haeietes tot ae affect the audibility of fog sig- sels 180 feet in length have passed through from the up- space to fix the net tonnage. Thus it will readily be cheeie. spre ihe ae ee ee ; : i ; e per lakes to the coast. The river St. Lawrence with the seen that the terms ‘‘net tons’? and ‘‘gross tons’ when hear fog signals. They should only depend upon neee system of canals established on its course above Mon- applied toa vessel’s admeasurement, are entirely im- ing them at short range, unless the wind and weather treal and the Lakes Ontario, Erie, St. Clair, Huron and proper, and tend to lead to much confusion, particularly tah eee ee mee do nie them at a long Superior, with connecti 1s, aff upon ; : : shone meke whatase.vhey cart of thes P , with ¢ : ecting Cana: s, affords a course of Pp qe lakes, when both phrases are so often applied They should remember that it does not require a very water communication, extending from the Straits of tocargoina strictly proper sense. The measurement heavy wind to drive back the sound; that a southerly Belle Isle to Port Arthur, on the north shore of Lake should be referred to as say ‘‘2,160 tons gross,”’ or ‘'1,908 wind generally drives back the sound more than a Superior, a distance of 2,160statute miles. Thedistance tons net.” sae a yee a sipped one; that about the time of a 4 c . . . ————_————"P- © RRR n to Duluth at the head of lake navigation being 2,384 ae f . seat pepe me sound:ia mot senetally beastie ; f poet RECOGNIZED THEM AT ONCE. aras usual; that when the upper and lower currents miles. The difference in level between the point on the Ww : : ‘ : of air run in different directions, or when the upper St. Lawrence near to Three Rivers, where tidal influ- e were alltelling mosquito stories at a New Jersey sails fill and the lower sails flap, or conversely, and the ence ceases, and Lake Superior is about 600 feet. he chee aoe, whee one particularly audacious man Ce ae os dinero upon ; thata very heavy height directly overcome by Dominion canals between a3 i ce pre ce) 2 Maes ee Ope Eis hey traveling with oa wiae reine eit SEE: Montreal and Lake Erie is 5334 feet. The general en- ee. re vas, gees BOOS ae, ee muy ve were heard better than if it were traveling sean it: ee largement project for the St. Lawrence River system ee ee evening, smoking and chatting, behind a hill or an island the signal may be heard bet- cottiprises locks having dimensions of 270 by 45 feet a great cloud of mosquitoes, allof them monstrous birds, ter at a distance than nearer to the obstacle; they should ' came out from shore and settled on the boat; and do bear in mind that it is hard to locate a feeble sound, and even a strong one may appear to come from the wrong direction if it is obstructed by objects near it, even by objects not directly in the straight line between the ob- server and the signal; that neighboring cliffs and sails sometimes reflect the sound; that the sound may be cut off entirely by pa&sing vessels; that to estimate the direction of the sound the head should be turned rapidly from side to side, so that the sound may reach the ears alternately.

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