Maritime History of the Great Lakes

Marine Record (Cleveland, OH), May 23, 1895, p. 7

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IRON ORE PRODUCTION FOR 1894. Mr. John Birkinbine, the iron ore expert of Philadel- phia has prepared for the division of mineral resources <of the United States geological survey an exhaustive report of the iron ore resources of the world in which the production of the world of ore or iron in 1893 is esti- mated at about 52,500,000 long tons. The portion of this report relating to the United States shows that the total production of iron ore in this country in 1894 was 11,879,679 long tons of 2,240 pounds, as compared with 11,587,629 long tons in 1893. This is an increase of about 2% percent. This production is only 73 per cent of the maximum production of the United States, name- ly, 16,296,666 long tons, which was the output in 1892, but is slightly greater than that of 1893, the proportion in that year being 71 percent of 1892, showing a remark- ble falling off. This falling off is further shown by the statement that the average production for the years from 1889 to 1892, inclusive, was 15,360,482 long tons, while for the last two years it has been but 11,733,654 long tons, a difference of 3,626,828 tons. Of the classes of iron ore mined, the red hematite continues to be the leading variety, being about 79 per cent of the total product, brown hematite, magnetic and carbonate fol- lowing in the order named, the last being only about & THE MARINE RECORD trade after Sept. 1, when the rates will be materially increased, while remaining the same throughout the season on the Al. By the new tariff vessels are divided into two classes. Class 1 includes all line steamers and Al and Al steam, tow or sail vessels. Class 2 in- cludes all A2 vessels. On class 1 the average is waived, while on class 2, 10 per cent, extra is charged for waiving the average. The new rates are: To Lake Erie, class 1, 25 cents; class 2, 40 cents. To Port Huron class 1, 20 cents; class 2,40 cents. To Lake Ontario and Ogdensburg, class 1, 35 cents, class 2, 50 cents. To Montreal, class 1, 45 cents, class 2,65 cents. One result of this grading of tonnage will be to make owners more zealous in keeping their boats up to class and perhaps less attention has been paid to this feature of lake tonnage than the trade warranted. _OnEEEEED a TRIAL TRIP OF THE NORTH LAND. The handsome twin screw steel steamer North Land, sister ship to the North West, has just been completed at the yards of the Globe Iron Works Co., Cleveland, and will be given a trial trip on Saturday, at which time it is expected that the North West will also be at that port. The general dimensions of the North Land are 386 blasts to the New York indicating that she wished to. pass to the left of that boat, but there came no answer. Still another and then another signal from the Cone- maugh, with no response. The Conemaugh found her- self in a position, where she had to take desperate measures to avoid collision with the tow of the Burling- ton, and with her engine at full speed and her wheel . ‘hard to starboard, she tried to cross the bows ‘of the ? New York. The latter still stuck to her course, the col- lision occurred and the Conemaugh was run ashore to prevent her from sinking, but it was found that her starboard bow had been badly smashed in. When the case came to trial, the. Conemaugh claimed $70,000 loss to the hull and cargo and the Union line re-_ sponded with a cross libel for $20,000 damages, the ‘New ‘a York having been considerably damaged also. The best admiralty lawyers to be obtained were secured by both sides and the case was bitterly fought. It was clearly proven that the New York was negligent, Judge Swan saying in his decision, October 3, 1892: ‘The faults of the New York are so many and flagrant that it may be doubted if judicial records afford a parallel to’ the negligence and recklessness of her navigation.”’ But the court ordered a division of the damages for the reason, as he expresses it, that ‘‘the equities of this: TWIN SCREW PASSENGER STEAMER three-fourths of 1 per cent of the total product. The number of bast furnaces in operation also shows an in- crease over 1893. The number in blast at. the close of 1893 was 137; at the close of 1894, 185. Twenty-four states produced iron ore in 1894, ranging in amount from 4,419,074 tons in Michigan to 7,915 tons from Maryland. Most of the increase noted above was in the Lake Superior region, Minnesota showing the greatest increase, from 1,499,927 tons in 1883 to 2,968,463 tons in 1894, ranking second among the iron-producing states, while in 1893 she wasthird. Michigan continues to be the largest producer, holding this rank for six years. Alabama has fallen from second place in 1893 to third in 1894; Virginia has also improved her standing, rising from fifth in 1893 to fourth in 1894, while. Penn- sylvania has fallen from fourth in 1893 to fifth in 1894. In spite of the increase in production noted, the total value of the product was but $13,577,325, or $1.14 a ton, as compared with $19,265,973, or $1.66 a ton in 1893. Michigan leads the country in the value of her iron ores: in 1894 they were worth $5,844,955, while Texas foots the list, with a value of $11,721. The value of Mary- land’s output in 1894 was $17,809. EEE NEW INSURANCE RATES ON GRAIN. The new insurance rates framed at Chicago by the cargo underwriters discriminates on grain went into effect on Monday, about 1% cent a bushel on A2 vessels carrying grain to Buffalo compared with Al. Boats trading to Lake Ontario, many of which are of the A2 class, will be the most seriously affected. While it is possible for A2 vessels to continue in service even with this differential against them during the spring and summer they will be practically driven out of the grain feet overall, 360 feet keel 44 feet beam and 34 feet depth. The diameter of the cylinders of the two sets of quadruple expansion engines are 25, 36, 51% and 74 inches by 42 inches stroke. She is fitted with a double battery of 14 Belleville water tube boilers, making 28 in all; 7,000 h. p. and speed 20 miles an hour. These two large steamers form the lake passenger line of the Great Northern R. R. Co., between Buffalo and Duluth, the transcontinental route is then by the Northern R: R. to the Pacific coast and it has passed beyond a well-founded report that a Pacific line of steamers will soon be operated by the Great Northern Co. in direct connection with their transcontinental service. rr > AN IMPORTANT ADMIRALTY RULING. On Thursday last Judge Swan reversed an important decision in admiralty made by himself, on a former hearing of the case. On October 21, 1891, the steamer Conemaugh was sunk through collision in shoal water in the Detroit River near Sandwich Point. She was bound from Mil- waukee to Erie with 1,800 tons of flour. She had reached a short distance above the point in question when she saw the steamer Burlington and a tow of four vessels rounding to, the steamer’s intention being to land at the Smith coal dock for fuel. The towing steamer’s turning left her schooners stringing out in the river in the form of a crescent, and the Conemaugh, which was close aboard, gave two whistle blasts to indicate that she would pass to the left of the last vessel in the tow. Thus far all had gone well. But she had barely set her head to clear the last schooner of the tow than the lights of the New York, bound up, could be seen. They were about a mile apart when the Conemaugh gave two *“NORTH LAND.” case are so strongly in favor of the Conemaugh that the conclusion that she wasin fault has been reached with reluctance. The great disparity of fault has invited and received consideration. But the impossibility of enforcing the great commandment of the law of naviga- tion which calls a halt when the risk of collision is in- volved compels me to adjudge both vessels at fault and order a division of damages.”’ Of the total of $90,000 damages, the Conemaugh was obliged to pay $40,000 and the New "York the remainder. The Conemaugh’s attorneys obtained a rehearing of the case, and on Thursday last, the judge reversed his former decision, saying: ‘‘l am satisfied after a careful examination of the testimony in this case that in hold- ing both vessels at fault, I passed too harsh a judgment on the conduct of the master of the Conemaugh in go- ing ahead at full speed instead of reversing to avoid a collision. Some admissions made by the cross-libelant were not called to my attention on the first hearing. One of the most important of these was that the con- duct of the Conemaugh wasthe only way left open to avoid a collision. “AsJI found in the former opinion there would have been nocollision had not the New York unlawfully changed her course upon being apprised of the proxim- ity of the Conemaugh. This error, superadded to the many and flagrant prior errors of the New York’s nay- igation, should be held solely at fault for the collision. “This conclusion requires that the former decree in this cause be vacated, and that a decree be entered hold- ing the New York solely at fault for the collision.”’ The case will probably be taken to the Court of Appeals. Harvey D. Goulder, of Cleveland, and Shaw & Wright, of Detroit, were proctors for the Conemaugh, and Schuyler & Kremer, of Chicago, and Henry C. Wis- ner, of Detroit, appeared for the New York.

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