$2.00 PER YEAR. ESTABLISHED 1878. 10c. SINGLE COPY. VOL. XVIII. CLEVELAND, OHIO, JUNE 13, 1895. NO. 24 Lake Carriers’ ASSOCIATION. To consider and take action upon all general questions relating to the navigation and carrying business of the Great Lakes, maintain necessary shipping offices and in general to protect the common interest of Lake Car- ‘riers, and im: rove the character of the service rendered to the public. PRESIDENT. WILitaM LIVINGSTONE, - Detroit, Mich. SECRETARY. ° Cuartes H. Kezzp, - - Buffalo, N, Y. TREASURER, GrorcE P. McKay, - - Cleveland, O. COUNSEL. Harvey D. Gouper, - Cleveland, O. VICE PRESIDENTS. J. C. Gricurist, Cleveland. Tuos. CRANAGE, Bay City. A. A, PARKER, Detroit. W. S. BRAINARD, Toledo. ? S, D. CaLpwe Lt, Buffalo. E. D. Carrer, = > Ene. Wicey M. Eecan, Chicago. J.C. RickErTson, Milwaukee. F, N. LaSacrz, Duluth. ¥. J. Frrtu, Philadelphia. EXECUTIVE AND FINANCE COMMITTEE, H. M. Hanna,, Cleveland, Ohio. D.C. Whitney, Detroit, Mich 11. H. Brown, Cleveland, Ohio. W. P. Henry, Buffalo, N. Y. ames Corrigan, Cleveland, Ohio. 5 J. OH. Brown, Buffa o, N.Y. fi A. Hawgood, Cleveland, Ohio. avid Vance, Milwaukee, Wis. Thomas Wilson, Cleveland, Ohio. R. P. Fitzgerald, Milwaukee, Wis. M. A. Bradley, Cleveland, Ohio. John G. Keith, Chicago, ill. . C. Gilchrisf, Cleveland, Ohio. ~ J. S. Dunham, Chicago, Iil. Peck, Detroit, Mich. COMMITTEE ON AIDS TO NAVIGATION: W. C. Richardson, Cleveland. Ohio. W.M. Egan, Chicago, Ill. George P. McKay, Cleveland, Ohio. Frank Owen, Ogdensburg, N. Y. H. G. Dalton, Cleveland, Ohio. A. W. Colton, Toledo, Ohio. B. L. Pennington, Cleveland, Ohio. James Davidson, Bay City, Mich. Thomas Wilson, Cleveland, Ohio. Alvin Neal, Port Huron, Mich, John W Moore, Cleveland, Ohio. M. M. Drake, Buffalo, N. Y. W.S, Mack, Cleveland, Ohio. W. Bullard, Buffalo, N, Y. David C. Carter, Detroit, Mich,* COMMITTEE ON LEGISLATION: S. D. Caldwell, Buffalo, N. Y, yess Corrigan, Cleveland, Ohio. James Ash, Buffalo, N. Y, m. Livingstone, Detroit, Mich. E, T. Evans, Buffalo, N. Y. James Millen, Detroit, Mich. P,P. Miller, Buffalo, N. Y, Jesse Spaulding, Chicago, IIl. John Gordon, Buffalo, N. Y. C. A. Eddy, Bay City, Mich. W. Bullard, Buffalo, N. ¥Y. Alex. McDougall, __ Duluth, Minn. Edward Smith, Buffalo, N. Y. F. JeFirth, Philadelphia, Pa. H. M. Hanna, Cleveland, Ohio. DECREASE IN LAKE FREIGHTS. Gen. O. M. Poe, U. S. Engineer Corps, in charge of the Northwestern river and harbor improvements, has lately compiled a table of freight rates on the lakes from 1887 to 1894 inclusive. It is not stated, but they are presumaby the average rates for the season on freights passing through the St. Mary’s Falls Canal to and from Lake Superior. His table shows that all freights,with the single exception of building stone, have decreased at a big ratio since the first named season. In all but three or four cases the decrease has been over 50 per cent, and in one or two has been 75 to 80 per cent. Wheat, for in- stance, dropped from 7 cents in 1887 to 2% cents in 1894, 3 and iron ore from $1.75 to 70 cents. Lumber rates have g gone down almost steadily. Last year they were less than half as great as in 1887, and this year are still lower. The rates given by Gen. Poe are as follows: 1887, $4.00 per thousand feet; 1888, $2.80; 1889, $2.70 ; 1890, $2.38; 1891, $2.70; 1892, $2.95; 1893, $2.35; 1894, $1.90. ‘This year the rate is $1.62%, a drop of 27% cents from the rate given for last year. It will be seen that from 1887 to 1888 there was a very great decrease in the rate, which,went down from $4.20 to $2.80. There was not much change the next year, the drop being only cents, with but a moderate falling in 1890, as it seems looking back from to-day, though at that time it must have been considered very large. Then rates went back until in 1892, the year of great business in every line, the highest rates since 1887 were paid. Since then the course has again been down, until this year they are 45 per cent below the rates of 1892, and only a little more than one-third those of 1887. present there must be a stop to the decline, and that any change that will come must be an advance, for the rates are where there can be little further decrease without forcing vessels to run at a great loss, and they will not do that for any longer period. De MICHIGAN’S TAX LAW. Michigan’s taxation law, as amended by the Waldo bill, which has just passed the legislature. ‘The bill amended Section 11 of Act 206 of the Public Acts of 1896. The text of the change is as follows: ‘“Provided, further, that all the personal property of all corporations heretoforeor or hereinafter organized under the laws of this State for the purpose of engaging in maritime commerce or navigation, shall be assessed only in the city, village, or township which is stated in their original articles of associations or in any amend- ment thereof, heretofore or hereafter made, to be the location of their general office or business.’’ This law willput an end to much controversy which has existed in Michigan, and will-without doubt be warmly approved by the vessel interests. -_ De a NOTICE TO MARINERS. Light-House Establishment, Office of the Light-House Inspector, Ninth District, CHICAGO, Ill., June 10th, 1895. Notice is hereby given that tne 3rd class can buoy marking Hyde Park Shoal (outside) and the spar buoy marking Morgan’s Reef (outside), are reported out of position, and the 2nd class can buoy marking South Park Shoal is reported as adrift. Alloff South Chicago, Til. The buoys will be replaced and reset at an early date. By order of the Light House Board. COMMANDER J. H. Dayton, U.S. N., Inspector 9th Light House District. ED ee a JAPANESE LAUNCHINGS, ‘The Japanese apply one of their many ‘‘pretty ways”’ tothe launching of ships. They use no wine. They hang over the ship’s prow a large pasteboard cage full of birds, and the moment the ship is afloat a man pulls a string, the cage opens, and the birds fly away, making the air alive with music and the whir of wings. The idea is that the brids welcome the ship as she begins her career as a thing of life. It would seem that at. ELIGIBLE FOR LICENCES. The supervising inspector general of steamboats has advised supervising and local inspectors of steam ves- sels to the effect that the attorney-general of the United States having rendered an opinion, declaring the pro- visions of the act of congress known as the ‘‘Dingley bill,” as not inconsistent with the provisions of the act of congress authorizing the licensing of certain aliens as engineers and pilots of steam vessels, and that the latter act is still in force, thereby reversing the views previously held by the department, requiring that licensed officers of steam vessels must be American citizens, the provisions of said circular are hereby re- pealed. Inspectors will hereafter be governed by the provisions of the old act, which provides that any alien who, in the manner provided for by law, has declared -his intention to become a citizen of the United States, and who ‘shall have been a permanent resident of the United States for at least six months immediately prior to the granting of such license, may be licensed, as if already naturalized, to serve as an engineer or pilot upon any steam vessel subject to inspection. —_—_—SD 0 ON LAKE LEVELS. Mr. P. McCann of St. Ignace, Mich., has a theory re- garding lake levels and in answer to the question, “why if the level in Detroit River, St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair and Lake Huron is lowered by the deep chan- nel at the mouth of the river, does not the levels in Lake Erie and all of its harbors show a corresponding increase ?’’ propounds as follows: Mr. McCann says there are two causes for the lower- ing of the water levels of Lake Erie. First, after the channels at the Flats and Limekiln crossing were deep- ened, the outflow of water from Lakes Huron and Michigan and into Lake Erie was increased pretty nearly one-third. This increased outflow raised the level of Lake Erie and kept up a high level there until the level of Lake Huron and Lake Michigan began to subside. During the time of the high levels of Lake Krie the pressure of the water running down the Niagara River had materially increased in force and velocity thereby, wearing away the banks of the river, leaving a wider space for the water of the lake to flow through than existed before that time. When the sup- lpy of water from Lake Huron began to diminish on ac- count of the lowering of its level, the widened and enlarged channelof the Niagara River began todrawon Lake Erie for the extra supply of water to keep the channel running full, and consequently Lake Hrie has fallen below its normal level. The other reason is the well-known one that when so much of the land that composes the watershed of Lake Erie is put under cultivation, the evaporation is so great that half the rainfall is cafried back to the clouds by it, which would decrease the inflow from the rivers so much that the lake levels would be effected by it. In my Opinion these are the reasons for the lowering of the levels of Lake Erie. REMOVAL OF WRECK, The Deputy Minister of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa, Canada, asks for bids for the removal of the wreck of the barge Ark, now lying in the channel of Detroit River, near Amherstburg. Tenders will be received up to the 24th inst , and should be addressed to the Deputy Minister, Department of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa.