Maritime History of the Great Lakes

Marine Record (Cleveland, OH), June 20, 1895, p. 6

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THE MARINE RECORD. GORRESPONDENGE. #ay-We do not hold ourselves responsible in any way for the views or opinions expressed by our correspondents. It is our desire that all sides of any question affecting the interests or welfare of the lake ma- rine should be fairly represented in Tue Marine Recorp. LAKE MICHIGAN LEVELS. FERRVSBURG, MicH., June 18, 1895. To the Editor of The Marine Record: A correspondent in the Seasoard of the 13th inst., re- marks the effect of ‘“‘local attraction” on the calcula- tions of the Chicago people in their estimate of the prob- able subsidence of Lake Michigan as a result of the Chicago drainage canal. They estimate it at three- tenths of a foot, or something more than 3% inches, while Major Ruffner, Corps of Engineers, U.S. A., calls it seven-tenths of a foot, or nearly 8% inches. Evidently the calculations of the Chicago engineers are affected by some local disturbing element, for it is quite possible, nay probable, that this subsidence will be found nearer 12 to 13 inches than 3 or 4 inches, as the Chicago people predict, when the question comes to be fully considered by the board of able engineers who are appointed by the Secretary of War for that purpose. With those who have some knowledge of the rivers that flow into Lake Michigan, it is beyond question that the united flow of the two largest, for a year, would not equal in volume the flow of the canal when discharging at the rate of 600,000 cubic feet per minute. With such a condition we need not be surprised to find the outflow to be as much as forty per cent. of the total inflow, in- stead of one-third as suggested in a former article on this subject. In view of the strong, steady current that sets out of the Straits of Mackinaw, between the head of Bois Blanc Island and Mackinaw Island, month in and month out, year in and year out, we see that no contribution from Lake Huron, not one pound, can be made to the perina- nent volume of Lake Michigan; hence, this question must be determined entirely from the ratio between tke outflow of the canal, to the total volume of the inflow of all the rivers, creeks, etc., to Lake Michigan, and the difference of level between Lakes Huron and Michigan; i. e. the head that makes this perpetual current, or out- flow through the Straits. : Though this ratio of the volume of outflow to that of inflow is, and must ever be largely a matter of judg- ment, it will yet afford an excellent approximation to fact, if we know correctly the difference of mean level > between the two lakes—Michigan and Huron. If the ratio above referred tois 40 per cent., then the ‘subsidence will be 25 per cent. of this difference of level, whatever that may be. And if this is5% feet, as we are told by Prof. Gray, we may look for a subsidence of about 14 inches. . This subsidence will be smaller if the ratio of the vol- ume of outflow to that of inflow is smaller, or if the dif- ference of level is smaller. So that, until we havea well matured judgment as to the relation of the volume of outflow of the canal, as compared with the volume of inflow of all the rivers and creeks to Lake Michigan, and a correct measurement of the difference of level be- tween the two lakes, the problem will be quite indeter- minate for purposes of precision, though a rude approx- imation gives strong intimations of danger. H. C. PEARSONS. DEPTH OF WATER, Port Huron, June 18, 1895. To the Editor of The Marine Record: In last week’s MARINE RECORD you publish the depth of water at Lake ports and if I understand right there is a draft of 16 feet credited abreast of Black River, (St. Clair River) now there must be some mistake as at this writing the steamer City of Rome is aground and she is fully 300 feet above the stake at the head of the Middle Ground, besides this, she is only drawing 15 feet 4 inches aft and 15 feet forward so that it looks as if there was some error in quoting more water than can now be - measured. { However, there may be a reason for their being shoal - water on the uppet end of the middle ground now asa dredge has been at work on the Canadian side at Point Edwards this spring and they are dumping their scow ‘in the current and this will to a great extent account for the middle ground shoaling as the sand drifts down and settles there. I would further report that this is the second time the dredge has been working in the rapids and depositing the dredging in the current so that there is no wonder that the middle ground keeps shoal. There ought to be some steps taken to stop this work of dredging in one place and depositing the bottom thus dredged at a still worse point. UNO. 9 9 tt ELECTRIC LIGHTING ON SHIPBOARD. (ILLUSTRATED.) The peculiar requirements which govern the installa- tion of electric lighting and power plants on shipboard are such that only familiarity with the conditions to be fulfilled and long practice can give the requisite result. And it is to firms or corporations that have made a spe- cialty of marine work that owners must look for im- provements in that special branch. For the past year -efforts have been made to secure greater compactness in the generator plant, consisting of a steam engine di- rectly connected to the generator, and the latest type which is now being built by the General Electric Com- pany, is an instance of success in this direction. The combination shown in the illustration consists of a double cylinder vertical engine, 4% x 4, directly coup- led to a General Electric multipolar generator. It is known as an eight kilowatt set, the voltage of the dy- namo being 110 volts. In the generator, which is of the latest type, allthe material of the frame is available for magnetic purposes, so that the magnetic leakage is reduced to a minimum—a point of vital importance on board ship. The frame is of cast soft steel of very high magnetic permeability, and the armature is iron-clad, i. e. the windings are sunk in slots in the outer surface of the armature core, are interchangeable and can be eas- ily replaced. Provision is made to ventilate the arma- ture thoroughly, and the insulation throughout is prac- tically indestructible. The commutator and brushes work perfectly under all conditions of load, and the reg- - ulation has been brought to a high degree of excellence. This generating set occupies a minimum of floor space, and this consideration alone will serve to recom- mend it to ship-builders and owners. Itis the smooth- est running, and, for its capacity, the smallest lighting generating set we have yet seen. ee MARITIME LAW. BAHR, BEAREND & ROSS vs. MARITIME INS, CO. Queen’s Bench Division, February, 1895. SHIPPING—BorroMRy BOND—INSURANCE.—This was an action to recover £750 upon-a policy of marine insur- ance upon a bottomry bond on a sailing ship. While at Mobile it became necessary to provide money for the ship anda bottomry bond was given by the captain. Soon after the vessel sailed from Mobile, the captain ran her ashore and abandoned her. The vessel was after- wards surveyed, and after sale little or nothing was left when expenses had been paid. The underwriters de- fended the action on the ground that the bottomry bond OOOO was invalid, and that there had been no loss within the meaning of the policy. In giving judgment his lord- ship (Kennedy, J.) said that he thought the bond was valid, but even assuming this, he was of opinion that plaintiffs could not recover, for there had been no loss on the subject matter of the insurance policy. The could not be regarded as a constructive loss. Under these circumstances, in law, the lender could still sue the master under his (the lender’s) maritime lien upon the ship, and this was still enforceable against the ship even though she was now in the hands ofa purchaser for value. There was no loss which would entitle plain- tiffs to claim against defendants. CEBALLOS vs. SCHOONER WARREN ADAMS. U. S. District Court Southern District of New York. DAMAGE TO CARGO—PERI, OF THE SEA-—STRAINING OF CENTERBOARD TRUNKS—SEAWORTHY VESSEL.—At Matanzas, the schooner Warren Adams was inspected by a competent shipwright and calked wherever the need of calking appeared. She then took on board a cargo of sugar, and on her voyage encountered heavy weather. In the necessary use of the centerboard during such weather, the center-board trunk was strained, causing the vessel to leak. Held, a peril of the sea, and the ves- sel, being seaworthy at the commencement of the voy- age, was not liable to the cargo owner for the damage. Brown, J. Inthe case of the EK. 1. Morrison (153 U. S. 214), there had been no inspection of the fastenings of the plate for eleven years, and the ship was held to have taken ‘ the risk-of her inability to prove the safety of the cap and plate.’’ Here the centerboard trunk, by thestraining of which, and by the consequent leak the sugar damage arose, was inspected by a competent shipwright before she left Matanzas, and calkedy according to the captain’s testi- mony, wherever the need of calking appeared. On the voyage the schooner met heavy weather, was obliged to tack many times, and could not come about without the use of the centerboard, which was therefore dropped somewhat to ena- ble the ship to tack. In this nec- essary use of the centerboard in rough weather, the trunk was strained and sprung a leak in the hold just above the bags of sugar}; the leak as soon as possible was so far Brairea as to enable the pumps to keep the leak under control. The case is, therefore, essentially diff- erent from that of the & I. Mor- rison, supra. Straining in heavy weather.and leaks from such strain- ing, have, in the judginents of the sea, been treated as sea perils from time immezorial, where reasonable inspection and provision to make the ship seaworthy are proved, and there are no special circumstauces indicating the unsoundness of the ship. Seaworthiness does not mean a warranty against leaks from straining in heavy weather. In the present case, as in that of TheSintram, 64 Fed. 884,I think that the evidence, in the absence of any countervailing proof, shows a ship which in general was staunch and seaworthy ; that as respects the centerboard trough, there was such inspection of it, and such repair of all that seemed needful as to meet the requirement of ordinary and reasonable fitness for the voyage contem- plated; and that the straining and consequent leak that arose by the partial and necessary use of the center- board in the rough weather the vessel met, is not evi- dence of either negligence in the master, or of unsea- worthiness of the vessel, but is to be properly attributed to the excepted sea perils. The libel must consequently be dismissed with costs. —_—_ EEE — From Point Iroquis, ten miles this sidé of Sault Ste. Marie, down to Detour, 60 miles below the Soo, and at the entrance to St. Mary’s River, the channel is very narrow, and crooked in many places, so that navigation is only possible by a systematic code of land marks, channel stakes, range lights, and beacon lights. It is almost impossible to make this run all the way in the darkness of night, or during a fog. Capt. Robert Mc- Leod reports that while coming through the new Hay Lake Channel, on the up trip, a heavy fog set in and vessels commenced to let go anchor, but on taking a station aloft he was able to keep his steamer under way. He took up his position in the crosstrees 60 feet above the decks and held it for two hours, in order to be able to look over the fog and set his bearings from the different land marks, and then pass the word to the man at the wheel. ¥ ship was in existence as a ship at the present time and _» :

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