ple dae 1s >» * VOL. $2.00 PER YEAR. ESTABLISHED 1878. 10c. SINGLE COPY. XVII. CLEVELAND, OHIO, JULY 171, 1895. NO. 28 Lake Carriers’ ASSOCIATION. To consider and take action upon all general questions relating to the navigation and carrying business of the Great Lakes, maintain necessary shipping offices and in general to protect the common interest of Lake Car- riers, and im; rove the character of the Service rendered to the public. PRESIDENT. Witttam. LivinGsToNne, - Detroit, Mich. SECRETARY. Cuares H. Kepp, - x - Buffalo, N, Y. TREASURER, GrorGE P. McKay, - - Cleveland, O. COUNSEL. Harvey D. Gou.per, - Cleveland, O. Vice PRESIDENTS. J. C. Gricurist, Cleveland. THos. CRANAGE,” Bay City. A. A, PARKER, Detroit. W. S. BRAINARD, Toledo. S, D. CALDWELL, Buffalo. E. D. Carrer, : Erie. Wicey M. EGAN, Chicago. J. C. RickeTson, Milwaukee, F, N. LASALLE, Duluth. ¥. J. Firtu, Philadelphia. EXECUTIVE AND FINANCE COMMITTEE, H. M. Wanna, Cleveland, Ohio. o C. Whitney, Detroit, Mich H. H. Brown, ‘ Cleveland, Ohio. P. Henry, ~ Buffalo, N.Y. ames Corrigan, Cleveland, Ohio. i: Ji H. Brown, Buffa o, N.Y. if A. Haw ood, Cleveland, Onis: avid Vanie, Milwaukee, Wis. Thomas Wilson, Cleveland, Ohio. R. P. Fitzgerald, Milwaukee, Wis. M. A. Bradley, Cleveland, Ohio. John G. Keith, Chicago, Ill. . C. Gilchrist, Cleveland, Ohio, Je Se Dunham, Chicago, iil. . M. Peck, Detroit, Mich. COMMITTEE ON AIDS TO NAVIGATION: W.C. Richardson, Cleveland. Ohio. W.M. Egan, Chicago, IIl. George P. McKay, Cleveland, Ohio. Frank Owen, Ogdensburg, N. Y. H. G. Dalton, Cleveland, Ohio. © A. W. Colton, Toledo, Ohio. RB. L. Pennington, Cleveland, Ohio. James Davidson, Bay City, Mich. Thomas Wilson, Cleveland, Ohio. Alvin Neal, Port Hu-on, Mich, John W Moore, Cleveland, Ohio. M. M. Drake, Buffalo, N. Y. W.S, Mack, — Cleveland, Ohio. W. Bullard, Buffalo, N, Y. David C. Carter, Detroit, Mich, COMMITTEE ON LEGISLATION: S. D. Caldwell, Buffalo, N. Y. some Corrigan, Cleveland, Ohio. James Ash, Buffalo, N. Y. m. Livingstone, Detroit, Mich. E, T Evans, Buffalo, N.Y. . James Millen, D troit, Mich, P P. Miller, Buffalo, N. Y, Jesse Spaulding, Chicago, Ill. John Gordon, Buffalo, N. Y. C. A. Eddy, Bay City, Mich. W. Bullard, Buffalo, N. Y. Alex. McDougall, Duluth, Minn. Edward Smith, Buffalo, N. Y. F. J. Firth, Philadelphia, Pa. H. M. Hanna, Cleveland, Ohio. EFFECT OF SHALLOW WATER ON THE SPEED a VESSELS. Mr. D. W. Taylor, at the last meeting of the Institu- tion of Naval Architects, read a paper bearing upon this subject under the title ‘‘Solid Stream Forms and the Depth of Water Necessary to Avoid Abnormal Re- sistance of Ships,’’ in which he stated that as the speed increases the wave resistance becomes more and more important, and hence the influence of shoal water upon resistance becomes more and more marked. Experi- ence has established the fact that in water only three times, or less, than the draught of a ship, itis materially retarded, but he has been unable to discover any authentic case of retardation having been noted where the depth was as much as six times the draught amid- ships. It would appear also that very broad ships would require a slightly greater depth of water for the same draught than ships of ordinary proportions, but the difference cannot be great. In this no account of speed is taken. It is a matter of common experience that depth of water has its greatest effect upon resist- ance at high speeds, and that for a given ship the re- sistance at low speeds is not appreciably affected ina depth where at high speeds the same ship is materially retarded. This is simply because shoal water produces but little effect upon any but wave resistance, and’ at low speeds the wave resistance is such a small part of the whole that its increase on account of shoal water is negligible in comparison with the total. EEE ae N. ATLANTIC WEATHER. The Hydrographic Office pilot chart of the North At- lantic for July, besides other interesting features, pre- sents a complete series of monthly fog charts of’ the ocean during 1894, which year, it is stated, may be taken as a typical one to illustrate the fog areas at the different seasons. An illustration of weather and cloud distribution in the neighborhood of a cyclonic storm is likewise very interesting. Generally fair weather with moderate to fresh winds, is predicted for the month of July but please look out for August as it appears that the eighth month of the year is the worst for fogs al- though otherwise the weather is agreeable. EDP ee ae INSTITUTION OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS, At the summer meeting of the Institution of Naval Architects held this year in Paris, many valuable sub- jects were ably treated upon and the session was pro- nounced as the best ever held. M. Emile Bertin, Chief of Construction in the French Navy contributed a paper entitled, ‘‘The Amplitude of Rolling on a Nonsynchron- ous Wave.”? Sir Wm. White and Mr. Martell dwelt upon the efficiency of bilge keels in large as well as in small ships. Sir William White also contributed a paper on ‘‘Wood and Copper Sheathing for Steel Ships.” Water tube boilers occupied a considerable portion of the session, two papers on this subject having been contributed one by M. A. Normand, the well-known torpedo boat builder of Havre and the other by Mr, Mark Robinson of Thames Ditton entitled the ‘‘Niclausse Bailer.’’ ice cease ee SE ROE UE REI ATES NOTICE TO MARINERS. Notice is hereby given that a second-class can buoy painted black, has been established in 20 feet of water on the northeasterly extremity of the shoals off South Point, entrance to Milwaukee Bay, west coast of Lake Michigan. The water between the buoy and South Point is foul, containing rocks with but 12 feet of water. Small shoals with 17 and 18 feet of water lie 34 mile S. by E. & E. and1 mile S. by E. % E. from the buoy. Bearings (true) and distances from the buoy: Milwau- kee (North Point) light-house, N. 14° 18’ W. (N. by W. 4 W.)5% m. Milwaukee Pierhead light-house, N. 43° 43’ W. (N. W. 4%} N.)3% m. Dome of St. Frances College N. 97° 58’ W. (W. 34S.) 1% m. By order of the Light-House Board. COMMANDER J. H. Dayvon, U. S..N., Inspector Ninth Light-House District. THE BALTIC SHIP CANAL. Germany does well to make the formal opening of the great Baltic ship canal a ceremonial affair of the first magnitude, says the London Review. When ships of the largest burden can pass by a protected short cut of sixty miles’ length from the North sea to the Baltic the ugli- est as well as the oldest problem of north Kuropean navigation will have been solved. Incidentally it will destroy what little remains of Denmark’s commercial importance. Copenhagen has endeavored to forestall disaster by making itself into a free port and spending large sums of money upon dock and harbor improvements; but we fear, allin vain. It is incredible that any shipping will hereafter be sent into Danish waters, to round the tire- some Jutland peninsula and brave the dangers of the treacherous passage of the sound, which can take ad- vantage of the shorter and entirely safe route across Holstein. Where the commercial supremacy of the Bal- tic will resettle itself when once it quits Copenhagen is not clear. Hamburg is very confident about its own succession to those rich honors. Ancient Lubeck is pro- jecting an Hibe-Trave canal by means of which she hopes to divert the increased traffic and wealth to her- self, The Courland port of Libau has spent £250,000 in en- larging its facilities for the competition and even St. Petersburg, which, with its new deep-water dock in the Neva, becomes a seaport this year for the first time, has visions of maritime greatness based on the novel re- arrangement of trade currents. While these rival claims are as yet in the air the advantages to British shipping are tangible andimmediate. Not least among these advantages may be counted the increased incen-- tives to peace which the financial importance of keeping this great canal open will give to the German empire. TEED THE AMERICA’S CUP. This international race will probably take place in - American waters next September. In both countries new yachts have been specially built for the race. The American yacht is aptly named the Defender, Built by the Herreshoff’s. She is a sloop yacht, and measures about 126 feet over all, and between 89 feet and 90 feet at the water-line. She has no auxiliary centre-board forward, but is a keel boat. She has a 35-foot lead bulb, weighing 60 tons. ‘The upper portion of her plat- ing is of aluminum, and the deck beams are of the same, material. She is expected to carry nearly 13,000 square feet of canvas. Her mast will be 102 feet long, her boom 102 feet, and her spinaker pole 72 feet. ‘The Brit- ish yacht Valkyrie (the third of the name) that has been built to meet the Defender, belongs, it is said, toa syndicate, of which Lord Dunraven is the managing owner. She was built at the yard of D. & W. Hender- son, Glasgow, from the designs of Mr. G. L. Watson, and was launched last month. Her length over all is 130 feet, and on the water-line 90 feet. The Valkyrie is a larger vessel than either the Britannia or the second Valkyrie, and will carry about 14,000 square feet of canvas.