Maritime History of the Great Lakes

Marine Record (Cleveland, OH), July 11, 1895, p. 8

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é a = = 8 THE MARINE RECORD. THE MARINE RECORD ESTABLISHED 1878. PUBLISHED EvERY THURSDAY, AT 144 SUPERIOR ST., (LEADER BUILDING), CLEVELAND, O. IRVING B. SMITH, CAPT. JOHN SWAINSON, BRANCH OFFICE 2 PROPRIETORS CHICAGO, LLL; i 238 Lake Street. : THOMAS WILLIAMS, Associate Editor. SUBSCRIPTION. One copy, one year, postage paid, One copy, one year, to foreign countries, . Invariably in advance. ADVERTISING. | Rates given on application. Entered at Cleveland Post Office as Second-class Mail Matter. en nn SS CLEVELAND, O., JULY 11, 1895. ee SHIPOWNING is one, if not the most prominent indus- try in the United States. Men of capital might aspire in a greater degree than they do now to control floating property. ——— oe THE MERCANTILE MARINE. It is somewhat beyond the bounds of journalism or of prudence to prognosticate what may event during the next score of years, but this we may say, that, unless the mercantile marine of the United States again comes to the front as in days of yore, we are certainly destined to be in the background of universal civilization, not to say progression. — Theré seems to be no use for American ships, or people to man them in this age, yet, other nations are making ‘ what we might term a grand living out of maritime pur- ~* suits, and it is due to Americans that they also should find the why and wherefore of success afloat. In this connection we would suggest that the appren- ticeship systsm be applied to our mercantile marine and that every boy whom an owner might enroll should be en- titled to some national recognition as being one of those whose early life and mature discretion was devoted to the upbuilding of the nation and her resources. Now, let the principal of the steamboat inspection ser- vice, as well as the commissioner of navigation, work to ‘the end that every boy starting out inthe mercantile ma- rine service of the country, either as a deck officer or an engineer, and if anything preferably the latter, be entitled to distinctive honors, while serving his time afloat. EP OS — TO USURP THE WESTERN TRADE. Canada will eventually usurp the trans-pacific trade unless the United States asserts her rights according to the Monroe doctrine or some other foothold which may hold the balance of power or transportation between the colonies of the British Empire and this country. It appears that the Canadian government are now en- ‘gaged in working up a scheme to capture all of the trade that they can between what we may term the stepping ‘off place on the Pacific coast and the East. The scheme recently proposed by the Canadians is to subsidize a line between Australia and the other” ‘provinces about as follows : “For a total annual subsidy of £300, 000 four 20-knot ships could be provided to give a weekly service between Great Britain and Canada, and five with a speed of 16 knots to give a fortnightly service across the Pacific from Canada to Australia. This proposal, it is stated, would require a capital of £3,000,000, with a smaller capital of £2,500,000 three Pacific steamers instead of five could be provided, giving a four-weekly service, but it would be ‘petter to deal with the larger and more complete scheme. For this project it is suggested that the subsidy of £300,- 000 should be borne—£175,000 by Canada, £75,000 by Great Britain, and £50,000 by Australasia. ‘The Canadian Government are already paying £25,000 a year towards the Pacific service, and have now agreed ° to pay, for a term of ten years, £150,000 towards the Atlantic service, thus making up the appointed subsidy of £175,000. At present the only subsidies received by the British from Australasia in aid of the Pacific service are the sums of £10,000 and £1,500, paid by New South Wales and Fiji, respectively. To make up the balance of £38,500 of the £50,000 required from Australasia would apparently not be an easy matter. South Australia and Western Aus- tralia are not materially interested in the Pacific route, and are satisfied with the existing service. No contribution therefore, it appears, can be expected from them towards the English Exchequer. Any substantial assistance from Victoria, Queensland and Neéw Zealand would be more or less conditional on the Pacific vessels calling at ports in those colonies; but to call at all three is considered to be out of the question.” With the foregoing in view it behooves the United States to be closely on guard and meet the foreign com- petition already evidenced in the Canadian policy re- garding the western borders of this continent and offset their Australian and South Sea commerce, if it is pos- sible to do so by any legitimate means and in due course with the comity of nations. em 8 9 LAKE LEVELS. In all the discussion that has appeared of late regard- ing the effect of the Chicago drainage canal on lake levels, nothing has been heard from the government engineers in charge of the big project, although it is well known that some of the best talent to be found among civil engi- neers in this country is engaged on the work. It is un” derstood now, however, that the canal trustees are about to submit a lengthy statement covering the subject to the Secretary of War, and extracts from ‘a report prepared by Thomas IT. Johnson, who is assistant chief engineer in charge of the hydraulic work of the canal, have been given out, Mr. Johnson finds that when Lake Michigan’s level is. at its highest normal point and the drainage canal is taking from the lake its maximum capacity of 600,000 cubic feet of water a minute, or 10,000 a second, the reduction of the level will be between five and six inches. At its average level, year in and year out, the reduction of the level will not exceed three and a half inches. When the lake level is at a low point and the channel is taking but 300,000 cubic feet a minute—the minimum capacity—the reduction will be but a fraction over one inch. The re- port says further with reference to a curve drawn on a diagram submitted in connection with it: “This curve indicates what is highly probable and in conformity with the increasing slope—viz., that at low stages of Lake Erie the change of level for a change of outflow amounting to 10,000 cubic feet per second is about three inches, or about one and a half inches for the amount which will for some years at least be taken by the Chicago drainage canal if completed. At midstage of the lake it appears that the change of level will be somewhat more, but the change is not of so much conse- quence at the higher as at the lower stages. The change of level in lake Hrie is fixed by Niagara River. The rise and fall of Lakes ,Huron and Erie are about the same, and therefore a change of flow through connecting rivers will produce the same change of level in both lakes, ex- cept in so far as the flow through Niagara River is larger than the flow through the Detroit River—that is, the change of level in Huron and Michigan for a given change, flow will be 15 per cent. more or less greater than the change in Erie.” Referring to Major Ruffner’s conclusions regarding the ‘Niagara outflow the report says: “Major Ruffner and his commission, when they examined Niagara River and made their measurements, used a side channel guage When this gauge measured a flow of a little less than’ zero they found that the flow was 164,000 cubic feet a ‘second. When the gauge marked one foot, the discharge increased to 204,000 cubic feet in a second, anda further “measurement of two feet indicated a discharge of 228,000 cubic feet in a second. It will be noted that the change in flow from the measurement at zero to that at one foot was 40,000 cubic feet. This corresponds to a one-foot ‘change of level in Niagara River, and a change in the level of the lake which would correspond to that would be 20 per cent more, or 1444 inches, But the flow of the drainage channel from the lake is to be now but 300,000 cubic feetin a minute of 5,000 in a second. Therefore, 40,000 cubic feet increase in flow, producing a lake-level change of 144g inches, would make a 5,000-cubic-foot flow a second produce a change of but, say 9 inches in He general decrease for three years on the level of the akes.”’ there is a firmer feeling, it is questionable if vessel THE FREIGHT SITUATION. Shipments of iron ore from the Lake Superior region up to July 1 were over 3,000,000 tons, with two-thirds of the season remaining. ‘Those who predicted that tikes total shipments would fall short of 8,000, 000 tons for the season are drawing in their horns. The output of 1895 is certain to exceed that of all previous years, and yet the exceptionally large production is so nearly equate’ a by the consumption that the demand next winter and © spring will be as great, if not heavier, than last winter, — and the prices will be just as certain to improve. The mines are running very economically this season, The low prices realized for the product necessitated per- manent retrenchment in several directions, and mines will be run in the future on much lower expense than previous to the depression just passed through, even after former rates of wages shall have been restored. Advices from Duluth say that wheat. shipments are increasing, but most of it is going out on charters made last winter. Line boats take occasional charters at prices kept pretty quiet, but the rates are all a guess at © from 2 to2% cents. This season’s lumber is beginning — tofind buyers, and the prospects are that it will soon be moving quite rapidly. Itis expected that quite a rush will be a feature of the latter portion of thé season. Freight rates are as reported last week, and although Pete: a APE tn z owners can advance any of the rates during the next few — days. rr oe + Oe A NAVAL RESERVE. A report on the naval militia which was made public a day or two ago at the Navy Department, suggests that a series of drills in the monitors be arranged for with © the governors of the states concerned in the engage- ments to be made, if possible, early in the spring, and — that exercises to be carried out systematically during the next summer, at which time itis believed two or more monitors on the Atlantic Coast, and the Monterey on the Pacific, may be available for this important sg duty. Naval officers who inspected the reserves of the — various states last sumf#fér%anite, it appears, in the conviction of the militia’s usefulness as a force foi% coast defense. The report suggests that steps be taken 7 E to call together the principal officers of the naval © militia for consultation as to the probable duties of the militia on the outbreak of war. Invitations are tobe ~ sent to the authorities of the various states asking them 5 to participate in this initial movement towards suggest- _ ing positive legislation regarding the duties of the militia and its relation to the national government and _ itsnayval forces. In compliance with regulations, gov- 5 ernors of states have made returns of the present 4 strength of the reserves as follows: Total officers — and men. Massachusettss. 22 iin as ce ee ee ee 448 Rhode IslanGic: sac sc uke cee hae ee 112 Contectictt- 52 caanc a ee one ae em 65 ING Ww YOrk se easy see nae ne een Pe 432 PentisylWanid ccc iv. kG senate ee 217 Mary lan dis fo og ks eng ee ee meee i ae 128 North Carolinians crn vege tiene hae, oes a, 168 SouthiCarolinacson octet e 208 California igre erie tape a ne een ea 320° PINOIS cy ea oe ee aes 367 Michigans a.k.a ee ee 6d DCO oa ye ee ae ere GU EAS Ga Ra Steet as, 2,530 The naval reserves constitute but one feature, though that is a most important one, in which the militia sys- . tem of the present surpasses that of the past. The following named vessels have been or are abouts to be loaned to state organizations: The New Hamp- shire to New York, the St. Louis to Pennsylvania, the : Dale to Maryland, the Nantucket to North Carolina, — and the Swatara to California. Steps are being taken to offer an expedition to the Michigan Militia at Detroit, — the two separate divisions at Rochester, the divisions at New Haven, Conn., and to the various divisions of South Carolina at Charleston and Port Royal. This — will enable these divisions to get boat practice and be- come familiar through boat expeditions, with the coastg” and harbors of their states. The opinion of Rear Ad- miral Meade, U. S. N.,is thatthe Naval Militia is an im portant school for the training of a. reserve force of officers for the navy, and in this respect the Admiral — compares its probable usefulness in time of war to the service rendered by the 7th Regiment of the New York National Guard in supplying officers to the army

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