~ THE MARINE RECORD. , sss during the civil war. Since the last annual report of _- Lieut. W. H. Schuetze, U S. N., on the Naval Militia; Michigan and Connecticut have organized Naval Militia divisions in Detroit and New Haven, respectively. The legislatures of Vermont, New Jersey, Virginia and - Georgia have passed laws authorizing the formation of naval militia battalions, Efforts are being made in Ohio and Washington to pass such laws at the next sessions of the legislatures. A bill has been introduced in Congress, having in view the organization of a naval militia battalion in the District of Columbia. Members of the New York Board of Trade and of the Maritime Association are endeavoring tocreate a renew- ed interest in the bill to establish a branch of the navy to be known as the ‘‘Navigating Naval Reserve.”’ A bill was introduced by Amos J. Cummings last year, but the matter has since drifted along without special attention being paid to it. Mr A. Vanderbilt, who takes a great interest in this movement, said in an interview last week: “The Naval Reserve of the United States is to the United States Navy what the National Guard is to the United States Army. “Two Divisions of this servicezhave been established by law, viz., the Naval Milita of the States and the Auxiliary Cruisers, in various high-powered steamships of the merchant marine. The third division is yet to be created tocomplete this most inexpensive and valuable war force, which would be ready at a moments notice to augment our regular naval service on the ocean and navigable waters of the country. This third division would be composed of such ex-officers and sailors of the United States navy and officers and sailors of the mer- chant marine as would volunteer for commission and enrolment and be found qualified upon examination under provisions prescribed by law and regulations’ es- tablished by the Secretary of the Navy. “There exist at the present time a large amount of American nautical intelligence and skill afloat available but unorganized, and consequently of but little power for immediate war purposes. If selected, organized and instructed under such regulations as would not interfere with commerce in times of peace, it could be made a powerful force to strike a blow in event of threatened hostilities. In naval reserve we are behind the times of the ‘maritime world, but willnot long remain so, as much progress is being made in the force adapted to our institutions and in organization unlike any similar force of the world. All the great maritime powers have for years had their naval reserves. ‘The Paris and New York of the American Line, while under the flag of Great Britain, were commanded, officered and partly manned by a personnel of the Naval Reserve of England, while the same ships under the American flag have not this governmental stamp of rank—an aditional guarantee of high standard :in abil- ity and character of officers and men—a [command cer- tainly well informed in times of battle to understand the . best qualities of their ship for maneuver from long fa- miliarty with her best qualities in times of peace. rr rs er TANDEM PROPELLERS. Naval experts calculate that to attain a greater speed in ocean steamers, the propelling power must increase in the ratio of the cube of the velocity, a doubling of the speed requiring eight times the power, and there is some . reason to think that while this cube ratio holds good for present maximum speeds, it would fall short before the doubling had been attained; that experiment would prove that eight-fold power would not give twice the twenty-two knots per hour attained by the Campania and the Lucania. This, too, would require the devotion of so much room to the purposes of boilers and machinery that it seems impossible that forty or fifty miles an hour on the ocean will ever be reached by this means. J. B. Jones, of Philadelphia, has evolved some new ideas in propellers which may be of service in attaining increased speed. His principal idea consists of two propellers revolving in different directions and at different rates of speed, and by this means the inventor claims thatthe ‘“‘slip’’ which has always been experienced is entirely overcome. This feature of his patent is an important one, but not more so than the gearing he has designed, by which the propeller blades revolve three times every time the shaft is revolved once, and this idea is carried out in the mounting of the two propellers, by which the difference , of their relative speed is secured. In the trials made a few months ago on the Delaware River, the rear propel- ler was geared to turn two and a half times, while the other made three turns to the shaft’s one. This trial was conducted under great difficulty; yet an increased speed was secured, but the engine on the boat wasn t. of sufficient power to get satisfactory results from it. When the boat was taken out of the water it was found that increased speed had been attained, despite the fact that a great piece of rope had become twisted in the mechanism of the propeller, and was acting on them like a brake. The experimental boat was lzid up for further improvements and the trial will be resumcd this Summer. Mr. Jones claims that with a 20 horse-power engine on the boat, he would have been able to make 25 miles an hour, instead of seven miles, which is all that could be gotton from her before applying the geared propeller. ED GRAND HAVEN VESSEL TRANSFERS. Schooner May Cornell, sold by John Stram to J. A. Olson, of Manistee, consideration $50: Tug Wm. Rich- ards, half interest sold by Wm. E. Pearsons to D. M. Wilson, of Montague, consideration $500. Tug Cayuga, half interest, sold to same party, for $1,500. Schooner Louise Monroe, sold by D, A. Trumpour, of Bay City, to Gabriel Stremhom, of Mackinac, consideration $400. rE 2 UNITED STATES SHIPBUILDING. Sail and steam vessels built in the United States and officially numbered as shown by the records of the Bureau of Navigation, Treasury Department, during the year ended June 30, 1895: has already been ordered. The OtisIron & Steel Co. of Cleveland are to furnish the plates, and the Carnegie Company of Pittsburgh, the frames. SHIPBUILDING RETURNS, The Bureau of Navigation has received preliminary returns showing that 682 steam and sail vessels of 132, 719 gross tons were built and documented in the United States during the last fiscal year, compared with 776 steam and sail vessels of 121,547 tons during 1894, an increase of 11,000 tons., Final and revised; returns will somewhat increase the figures by the addition of. barges, etc. Steam vessels numbered 283, of 75,728 gross tons, sail vessels 399 of 56,990 tons, a decrease of 8,000 tons steam and increase of 19,000 tons ope com- pared with 1894. ’ Construction on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts com- prised 442 vessels, of 79,520 tons, compared with 562 vessels of 68,478 tons for 1894. Construction on the Great Lakes comprised 93 vessels of 38,016 tons com- pared with 89 vessels of 40,372 tons. Among notable additions of the year to the merchant fleet are the steamers ‘St. Louis,” ‘North Land’ and ‘Newport News.”’ Steel construction comprised 36 vessels, of 47,696 tons compared with 35 vessels of 50,736 tons in 1894. The number of American vessels thus far officially reported as lost during the year comprised 85 steam vessels and 276 sailing vessels, barges, etc. Among the notable American marine disasters of the year are the recent foundering of the S. S. Colima, the loss of the S. S. Keweenaw, reported missing with 31 lives on the Pacific, the stranding of the steamships STEEL IRON. WOOD. Steam. 'Sail Steam. Sail. Steam. Sail. No.| Gross.-|No | Gross No| Gross. | No.} Gross No.| Gross. |No.| Gross. Atlanticand Gulf ........-.. 18 | 20.770.07). 1 6902 7 1) 23,800 73 eee 109 | 9,613 57|307 | 45,765.77 PACiiC Hy ee ee, ae 1 DROW GRO Y ARG He omen a a (ane Se PRSA/D GU, e cake EPA ees 21 3.026 72} 61 2,079.58 Great Lakes........... repel ah 8 |.17,654.64| 4 6.062 60}; 1 SOoMS heise 54 | 10,918 60} 26 3.013 60 Western Rivers.............. 4 SSQU(O eel pee ee a Cis nlsgtnes a tecaee ee eee ae aes GOS NOOSO ORs Oh came Potals pee et ake Ge ee ces 31 |.41.563.84 ESS 651311621738 33. 665:88i ft fle 244 | 30.297.96' 394 las No. |Gross Tons. Dotal steam aise fT heer 283 75,727.68 Motak: Sailers cs eer area ee ee 399 56,990 87 Grandatota les oo ee oie se eee ae 682 132 718 55 ANOTHER CONTRACT PLACED. A contract has been awarded to the Cleveland Ship Building Company by a Cleveland firm of vessel owners for the construction of a large steel steamer to be ready for business on the opening of navigation in 1896. According to the present specifications the new boat will be 395 feet keel, 415 over all, 45 feet beam and 28 feet deep. She will have twelve hatches with twenty- four-foot centers. Engines of the builders’ triple ex- pansion type, high pressure cylinder 23 inches in diam- eter, intermediate cylinder 38 inches in diameter, low pressure cylinder 63 inches in diameter, with a stroke of 40 inches. Steam will be supplied at a pressure of 170 pounds to the square inch by two Scotch type boilers each 14 feet in diameter and 13 feet long. The system of her scantling construction will be what is known as the channel system, the same as the steamer Yale build- ing at the same yard and the big steamer Victory which was launched at Chicago last week. Her deck houses will consist of a steel forecastle ex- tending from the spardeck to the promenade deck, and will contain the captain’s stateroom, bedroom and bath- room, and mate’s and wheelsmen quarters. On the prom enade deck will be located the texas and pilot house. About amidships will be located a deck house, contain- quarters for the firemen, deckhands and watchmen and alamproom. Aft of the boiler house will be located a cabin containing the dining room, galley, pantry, stewards’, engineers’ and oilers’ rooms. ‘The cabins will be finished in quarter sawed oak paneling and ceil- ing throughout. The specifications call for a steam windlass, capstans and everything modern for the rapid handling of cargo. It is estimated that the new ship will carry about 4,500 gross tons of iron ore on a mean draught of 15 feet, or 6,500 tons, on 20 feet. The material for the new boat Cienfuegos and Ozama, and the loss of the S. S. Chicora on Lake Michigan. ee 1 + or OFFICIAL INQUIRY. Charles A. Richardson and Stewart H. Moore, govern- ment steamboat inspectors at Chicago, have forwarded to Supervising Inspector Dumont at Washington their report regarding the accident on June 22 to the whale- back steamer Christopher Columbus. The report states that their was no carelessness nor lack of discipline on the boat and that no excess of steam was carried. In addition to stating that a hydrostatic test of 225 pounds was applied June 8 and that everything was found in good order, the report says that ‘‘one of the cast-iron flange T connections on main steam pipe burst close to the flange, causing the strain to break one of the main stop-valves of the after boiler in the star-board battery in the same place—viz: neck of flange connection. The cast-iron T connection was eight inches in diameter and the material was three-fourths of an inch in thickness, The stop-valve was five inches in diameter and of the same thickness.” The report says further: ‘‘Neither was there an ex- cess of steam pressure; in fact, it had never reached the amount allowed by the certificate of inspection—yiz;: 170 pounds. One passenger testified that he heard one of the officers reply to a passenger when asked if they would allow the Virginia to pass them, that they were not going at their usual speed, nor would they, as they ° were not carrying the usual amount of steam.”’ EEE a Srx employes of the United States Coast and Geo- detic Survey, with pay ranging from $1,800 to $4,000 per year have been removed by Secretary Carlisle of the Treasury Department. eT EEE ee THE Treasury Department has entered into contracts with hospitals and surgeons at the principal cities of the country for the care of sick seamen, the rates varying from 50 cents to $1 per day for subsistence, and from $8 to $18 for burials.