THE MARINE RECORD. i ee. SRE ee JIN THE ENGINE ROOM. -A NEW STEAM WHISTLE. A very common defect in the ordinary steam whistle is its frequent failure to emit a clear note at the very instant the steam is turned on, and this of course is an evil which calls for prompt removal. In many cases - “ condensation ”’ interferes, and some seconds of escap- ing steam and water combined make the signal men- tioned in the regulations quite unintelligible. A new double-note whistle, worked at the low pressure of 50 to 60 pounds of steam, now on view at the works of Messrs. Fawcett, Preston & Co., 17 York street, Liverpool, isa novelty in the matter of sound production, and the in- ventor claims that he completely overcomes the diffi- culty above mentioned by relieving the condensation quickly, while a clearer and more penetrating sound is produced by the simple plan of combining two notes. In connection with this subject, a correspondent sug- gests that in order to arrive at some approximate idea of.the value of signals emitted from the differently con- structed steam sounding instruments, outgoing and in- coming steam vessels, when abreast of the Rock light should be compelled to sound the ‘‘ prolonged blast y prescribed by the Board of Trade regulations. The re- sult of this experiment, says our correspondent, would cost simply nothing more than a little effort on the part of the navigating officer, and the effect would determine whether certain kinds of whistles used at present were capable of being heard at a respectable distance. The arrangement might apply to fogs, without danger to navigation, and would, perhaps, assist to solve the problem in dispute of fixing the position from which a sound emanates.—Liverpool Journal of Commerce. CLEAN MACHINE SHOPS. ‘The desirability of cleanness in an engineering work- shop, of picking up every chip, and of sweeping in every — nook and corner, has been so much talked about within the past few years that scarcely anyone possessing an ordinary shop is without a twinge of conscience every time he sees a little dirt heap. Practically, however, the exact degree of cleanness which is the most econom- jcal isa subject which might be profitably discussed. In a dark shop it is best of course to have the windows as clean as soap and water will make them, but where rough work is going on there would seem to be little use in trying to imitate some of the shops where only the finest work is done. If it is a question of making fine tools, gauges and nice work generally, cleanness is certainly desirable, but when it is repair work on big engines and the like, it is not likely that the shop owner can effect any increase in his income by attempting to have everything ‘‘spick and span.’’ In one of the best known shops, where litter is never allowed to accumu- late, it is quite interesting to study the conditions of the different departments. On one of the upper floors, where the work to be done is delicate, and where the light is, of necessity, very good, everything is as neat and clean as one could wish, but in those departments where the heavier and coarser work is carried on, there isno attempt to approach any such neatness. Every department has its own standard, and that standard is _ adjusted to the requirements of the work. The degree of cleanness and neatness then is to be determined by the money basis. ‘That degree which will pay is the de- ' gree which a shop ought to support.—Cassier’s Magazine. ‘ ER 8 0 a FOG SIGNAL EXPERIMENTS. Mariners differ so widely in capacity that rules which would be very useful to one might be misleading to an- other, says Maj. Wm. B. Livermore, Corps of Engi- neers, U. S. A., in his report upon fog signal experi- ments. No definite instructions can be prepared that will insure against accidents. Even the best of seamen are often harrassed by cares and duties that divert their eattention for the moment, and in case of disaster the most conflicting accounts have been given of the altera- tions of the audibility of fog signals. The noises upon the ship, the noise of the wind and waves, and the con- dition of the nerves, all effect the audibility of fog sig- nals to a degree that can best be appreciated by study- ing the evidence. It is impossible to navigate in bad weather without more or less risk. Mariners should study the principles that effect the audibility of fog sig- nals, just as they study the art of navigation, and should notice the wind and temperature whenever they. hear fog signals. They should only depend upon hear- ing them at short range, unless the wind and weather favor the sound, but if they do hear them at long range they should make what use they canof them. They should remember that it does not require a very heavy wind to drive back the sound; that a southerly wind generally drives back the sound more than a northerly or an easterly one; that about the time of a change in the wind the sound is not generally heard as far as usual; that when the upper and lower currents of air run in different directions, or when the upper sails fill and the lower sails flap, or conversely, the signal is not to be depended upon; that a very heavy wind tends to break up all sound; thatif a vessel is traveling with the wind the signal will probably be heard better than if it were traveling against it; that behind a hill or an island the signal may be heard better at a distance than nearer the obstacle; they should-bear in mind that it is- hard to locate a feeble sound, and even a strong one may appear to come from the direction if it is obstructed by objects near it, even by objects not directly in the straight line between the observer and the signal; the neighboring cliffs and sails sometimes reflect the sound; that the sound may be cut off entirely by passing ves- sels; that to estimate the direction of the sound the head should be turned rapidly from side to side, so that. the sound should reach the ears alternately. ED OS a AMERICAN STEAM VESSELS. A very valuable book, with the above title has been received recently from Messrs. Smith & Stanton, the publishers, 129 Broad street, New York, the proprietors of Seaboard, a well-known authority in all marine affairs. The volume was compiled and illustrated by Mr. Samuel Ward Stanton. It is, without doubt, the most complete epitome of marine architecture ever is- sued from the press, and is a work of art well worth preserving. There are nearly 309 large illustrations, reproductions of accurate pen drawings, besides a large number of smaller pictures, together with a brief de- scription of each of the different varieties of ocean, lake and river vessels, illustrated—from the first successful steamboat, Robert Fulton’s Clermont, built at New York in 1807, to the transatlantic passenger steamship St. Lonis, built at Philadelphia in 1894-5. The descrip- tive pages are exquisitely executed, each containing one or more small illustrations and handsome borders “in quaint nautical designs, beautifully printed in colors. The majority of the full-page drawings that appear in this work were exhibited at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893, and their delineator, Mr. Samuel Ward Stanton, was awarded a medal and dip- loma. ‘The diploma reads: “A very finely executed and interesting collection of drawings, which sbow with great skill and clearness various types of warships, mercantile ocean steamers, lake and river steamers, and yachts. They are of gen- eral interest, and show artistic merit and historical technical value.”’ The book is invaluable as a means of reference, and as showing the advancement of shipbuilding in the United States. It is admirably arranged for the con- venience of those seeking information from its pages, and is printed in the highest style of the decorative and typographic art. Among the lake vessels illustrated in this edi are the Atlantic, Badger State, Chicago, Chicora, Christo- pher Columbus, City of Alpena, City of Chicago, City of Cleveland, City of Detroit, City of Toledo, Codorus, Empire, Empire State, Excelsior, Frank EK. Kirby, Greyhound, India, Indiana (1841), Indiana (1890), Iron- sides, Livingstone, Manitou, Maryland, Matoa, Mer- chant, Merida, Michigan, Milwaukee, Mississippi, North Star, North West, Northwest, Owego, Peerless, Petoskey, Pleasure, Princeton, Saranac, Saxon, She- boygan, Soo City, State of Ohio, St. Ignace, Susque- hanna, Thomas Cranage, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, W. Hz. Gilcher, Walk-in-the-water, Western Metropolis, Western World. ee Re “AN “ENGINEER” CHANGE. Mr. Egbert P. Watson has purchased all the rights, title and interest of the Watson-Warren Co. in the En- gineer, New York, and this very valuable publication, which is an authority on all matters in its line, is now published by Egbert P. Watson & Son. The Engineer is published every two weeks. BACKING CHARTS. There have come to the office of THE MARINE RECORD a number of requests for ‘‘backed’’ pilot charts of the Hydrographic Office issue. The Hydrographic Office does not issue backed charts, but attention is called by Commander Sigsbee to the following directions forthus — preserving charts, which were published with the North — Atlantic Pilot Chart for December, 1893: To make the paste.—Mix flour and cold water in. such proportions that the mixture shall be of the consistency of cream after the flour has been completely macerated. When the mixture is in this condition, apply heat and a boil. Stir thoroughly while boiling and continue the cooking until the mixture becomes thick and clear. Then remove from the fire and strain through thin mus- lin, after which add boiling water and make the paste thin enough to be applied with a brush. To back the chart.—Use a good quality of cotton or linen cloth, which should be cut four inches wider than the chart each way so as to make a two-inch border all around the chart. ‘Tack or paste the cloth down along its edges and stretch it very gently until flat and smooth. Lay the chart upon a table or flat surface, © face down, and cover the back evenly with paste ina coat equal in thickness to a thick coat of paint. Fit the chart to the cloth and smooth it out by rubbing over its face with a dry cloth, pressing from the middle out- wards, to avoid distortion. Next lay a large piece of wrapping paper upon the chart and press it down firmly with even strokes so as to make the chart adhere to the muslin closely and evenly throughout. When the chart is dry trim off the surplus muslin. “If these directions are followed closely the chart will lie flat after it has been backed. If the cloth isstretched too-much, the backed chart will curl up. or oe TRADE NOTES. The August issue of the Calendar Blotter of the Joe Dixon Crucible Co., of Jersey City, is another of the al- ways unique ads of that company. The large new steel steamer Penobscot, launched at Wheeler’s yard last week, is equipped with one of the excellent deck hoists manufactured by the Marine Iron Co., of Bay City. The Clayton Air Compressor Works, New York, have followed up recent magazine articles upon the increas- ing use of compressed air with a handsomely illustrated catalogue of their various appliances, which includes a careful treatise on the use of compressed air recently published in the Engineering Magazine. zl An error in a note reprinted two weeks ago made the RECORD say that four of the steam towing machines of the American Ship Windlass Co., were in use on the lakes. The number should have been eight and there is a prospect that others will be ordered soon. Recent patents have been issued which cover modifications of this machine. The Roberts Safety Water Tube Boiler Co. has just taken an order for two boilers nearly as large as those for the Unique, from the Centennial Transportation Co., which has used two smaller Roberts boilers for seven years on the steamer George B. Sandt. ‘The latter boat was recently sold to the Spanish government for use in Cuba. The last order was placed without competition being asked for. An extraordinary thing to boast of is the statement that six of the crew of the new Defender yacht ‘‘can show records: of having been in from two to four wrecks.’”’ It is hardly likely that Capt. Haff gave out this information himself, but if any disaster should over- take the Defender he would have no difficulty in finding a Jonah from that lot. Newspaper men who write such stuff ought to learn a little more about sailors’ supersti- tions. The American Ship Windlass Co., of Providence, R.I., have just shipped a windlass for the large steamship building by the William Cramp & Sons Ship ané Engine Building Co. for William P. Clyde & Co. This windlass embraces all the latest improvements recently brought out by the American Ship Windlass Co. It has the crank shaft down close to the bed plate of the windlass, which greatly reduces the vibration, the wear and tear of the windlass, reduces the friction and noise in running, and makes it of course a more powerful windlass on account of the reduction of the friction, and also makes it more durable and less liable to come to repairs.